Spatial Assessment of Attitudes Toward Tigers in Nepal
- 839 Downloads
In many regions around the world, wildlife impacts on people (e.g., crop raiding, attacks on people) engender negative attitudes toward wildlife. Negative attitudes predict behaviors that undermine wildlife management and conservation efforts (e.g., by exacerbating retaliatory killing of wildlife). Our study (1) evaluated attitudes of local people toward the globally endangered tiger (Panthera tigris) in Nepal’s Chitwan National Park; and (2) modeled and mapped spatial clusters of attitudes toward tigers. Factors characterizing a person’s position in society (i.e., socioeconomic and cultural factors) influenced attitudes toward tigers more than past experiences with tigers (e.g., livestock attacks). A spatial cluster of negative attitudes toward tigers was associated with concentrations of people with less formal education, people from marginalized ethnic groups, and tiger attacks on people. Our study provides insights and descriptions of techniques to improve attitudes toward wildlife in Chitwan and many regions around the world with similar conservation challenges.
KeywordsCoexistence Conservation Coupled human and natural systems Human dimensions Human–wildlife conflict
We acknowledge our colleagues in the Center for Systems Integration and Sustainability at Michigan State University and the Institute for Social and Environmental Research-Nepal in Chitwan for their contributions to this article. Research was supported by a grant from the US Fish and Wildlife Service Rhinoceros and Tiger Conservation Fund, National Science Foundation (Partnerships in International Research and Education, Dynamics of Coupled Natural and Human Systems Program), and fellowships from Michigan State University and NASA’s Earth and Space Science program. We thank two anonymous reviewers for helpful comments on earlier drafts of this paper.
- Axinn, W.G., and D.J. Ghimire. 2007. Social organization, population, and land use. Population Studies Center, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, MI, USA.Google Scholar
- Barber, J.S., G.P. Shivakoti, W.G. Axinn, and K. Gajurel. 1997. Sampling strategies for rural settings: A detailed example from the Chitwan Valley Family Study, Nepal. Nepal Population Journal 6: 193–203.Google Scholar
- Bearer, S., M. Linderman, J. Huang, L. An, G. He, and J. Liu. 2008. Effects of fuelwood collection and timber harvesting on giant panda habitat use. Biological Conservation 141: 385–393.Google Scholar
- Bowman, J.L., B.D. Leopold, F.J. Vilella, D.A. Gill, and H.A. Jacobson. 2001. Attitudes of landowners toward American black bears compared between areas of high and low bear populations. Ursus 12: 153–160.Google Scholar
- Chardonnet, P., B. Soto, H. Fritz, W. Crosmary, N. Drouet-Hoguet, P. Mésochina, M. Pellerin, D. Mallon, L. Bakker, and H. Boulet. 2010. Managing the conflicts between people and lion: Review and insights from the literature and field experience. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Wildlife Management Working Paper 13.Google Scholar
- Dirgha, J., and W.G. Axinn. 2006. Family change in Nepal: Evidence from western Chitwan. Contributions to Nepalese Studies 33: 177–201.Google Scholar
- Eagly, A.H., and S. Chaiken. 1993. The psychology of attitudes. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers.Google Scholar
- Government of Nepal. 1993. Fourth amendment to the national parks and wildlife conservation act (2029). Nepal Gazette, 43(Suppl.).Google Scholar
- Karlsson, J., and M. Sjöström. 2011. Subsidized fencing of livestock as a means of increasing tolerance for wolves. Ecology and Society 16: 16.Google Scholar
- Kellert, S.R., and J.K. Berry. 1987. Attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors toward wildlife as affected by gender. Wildlife Society Bulletin 15: 363–371.Google Scholar
- Lepczyk, C.A., C.H. Flather, V.C. Radeloff, A.M. Pidgeon, R.B. Hammer, and J. Liu. 2008. Human impacts on regional avian diversity and abundance. Conservation Biology 22: 405–416.Google Scholar
- Linderman, M.A., L. An, S. Bearer, G. He, Z. Ouyang, and J. Liu. 2005. Modeling the spatio-temporal dynamics and interactions of households, landscapes, and giant panda habitat. Ecological Modelling 183: 47–65.Google Scholar
- Liu, J., T. Dietz, S.R. Carpenter, M. Alberti, C. Folke, E. Moran, A.N. Pell, P. Deadman, et al. 2007. Complexity of coupled human and natural systems. Science 317: 1513–1516.Google Scholar
- Liu, J., V. Hull, A.T. Morzillo, and J.A. Wiens (eds.). 2011. Sources, sinks and sustainability. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Milliken, T., R.H. Emslie, and B. Talukdar. 2009. African and Asian Rhinoceroses—Status, conservation and trade. IUCN Species Survival Commission Report (CoP15 Doc. 45.1 Annex).Google Scholar
- Moran, P.A.P. 1950. Notes on continuous stochastic phenomena. Biometrika 37: 17–23.Google Scholar
- Morzillo, A.T., and M.D. Schwartz. 2011. Landscape characteristics affect animal control by urban residents. Ecosphere 2. doi: 10.1890/ES1811-00120.00121.
- Muter, B.A., M.L. Gore, and S.J. Riley. 2013. Social contagion of risk perceptions in environmental management networks. Risk Analysis. doi: 10.1111/j.1539-6924.2012.01936.x.
- Naughton-Treves, L., and A. Treves. 2005. Socio-ecological factors shaping local support for wildlife: Crop-raiding by elephants and other wildlife in Africa. In People and wildlife: Conflict or co-existence?, ed. R. Woodroffe, S. Thirgood, and A. Rabinowitz, 252–277. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Nepal Central Bureau of Statistics. 2012. Nepal census information site. https://sites.google.com/site/nepalcensus. Accessed 1 Aug 2011.
- Nepal, S.K., and K.E. Weber. 1995. Prospects for coexistence: Wildlife and local people. AMBIO 24: 238–245.Google Scholar
- Nepal Survey Department. 1996. Ministry of land reform and management. Survey Department. http://www.dos.gov.np. Accessed 15 May 2012.
- Nyhus, P.J., S.A. Osofsky, P. Ferraro, F. Madden, and H. Fischer. 2005. Bearing the costs of human–wildlife conflict: The challenges of compensation schemes. In People and wildlife: Conflict or co-existence?, ed. R. Woodroffe, S. Thirgood, and A. Rabinowitz, 107–121. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Riley, S.J., and D.J. Decker. 2000b. Wildlife stakeholder acceptance capacity for cougars in Montana. Wildlife Society Bulletin 28: 931–939.Google Scholar
- Sirkin, R.M. 2005. Statistics for the social sciences. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.Google Scholar
- UNDP. 2007. Final evaluation: Landscape-scale conservation of the endangered tiger and rhino populations in and around Chitwan National Park. United Nations Development Programme.Google Scholar
- United Nations. 2010. World population prospects: The 2010 revision. http://esa.un.org/wpp/unpp/panel_population.htm. Accessed 1 Aug 2012.
- Wang, S.W., J.P. Lassoie, and P.D. Curtis. 2006. Farmer attitudes towards conservation in Jigme Singye Wangchuck National Park, Bhutan. Environmental Conservation 33: 148–156.Google Scholar
- Williams, C.K., G. Ericsson, and T.A. Heberlein. 2002. A quantitative summary of attitudes toward wolves and their reintroduction (1972–2000). Wildlife Society Bulletin 30: 575–584.Google Scholar
- Woodroffe, R. 2001. Strategies for carnivore conservation: Lessons from contemporary extinctions. In Carnivore conservation, ed. J.L. Gittleman, S. Funk, D.W. Macdonald, and R.K. Wayne, 61–92. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Woodroffe, R., S. Thirgood, and A. Rabinowitz (eds.). 2005. People and wildlife: Conflict or co-existence?. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- World Bank. 2011. World development report 2012: Gender equality and development. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank.Google Scholar
- Zimmermann, A., N. Baker, C. Inskip, J.D.C. Linnell, S. Marchini, J. Odden, G. Rasmussen, and A. Treves. 2010. Contemporary views of human–carnivore conflicts on wild rangelands. In Wild rangelands: Conserving wildlife while maintaining livestock in semi-arid ecosystems, eds. J. du Toit, R. Kock, and J. Deutsch, 129. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar