Advertisement

AMBIO

, 40:479 | Cite as

Is Biodiversity Friendly Fisheries Management Possible on Issyk-Kul Lake in the Kyrgyz Republic?

  • Azat Alamanov
  • Heimo Mikkola
Review Paper

Abstract

This paper aims to identify challenges, and threats, and further explore opportunities for a new Biodiversity Friendly Fisheries Management Regime on the Issyk-Kul Lake in the Kyrgyz Republic. This lake is the second largest high-altitude lake in the world providing recreational and small-scale fishing activities as well as cage culture of introduced species. The populations of several indigenous species are seriously threatened, because many of the introduced species are potential predators. We examine the root causes for overfishing and relationships of alien and endemic fish species in Issyk-Kul Lake and give possible policy options that can help remediate or mitigate the biodiversity degradation. This analysis focuses on necessary legal modifications, institutional cooperation, the protection of selected endemic fish species, control of the alien species, the sustainable extension services and management of fish ponds. Fisheries co-management is one option to explore shared stewardship and empowering user groups on the lake. A comprehensive fisheries management plan is also needed, in addition to immediate action and further studies on the following wider aspects: water management/irrigation issues, water-quality assessment near cage cultures, socio-cultural issues, resource inventory, and assessing fish biology and the lake ecosystem.

Keywords

Fisheries management Co-management Biodiversity Alien and endemic fish species Issyk-Kul Lake Kyrgyz Republic 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The implementation of the UNDP/GEF Project: “Strengthening policy and regulatory framework for mainstreaming biodiversity into the fishery sector” started in the second half of 2008, and gave us the opportunity to make this study. Our deepest gratitude goes to our colleagues who participated with all their skills in the team work, namely, Akylbek Rispaev, Andras Woynárowich, B. Koichumanov, Edil Niyazov, M.N. Alpiev, and Nookatbek Idrisov. From the Cholpon-Ata office we want to mention Nelia Barakanova, Madina Momunkulova and Aliev Sansyzbai. We also want to give our special thanks to Kathrin Uhlemann, UNESCO MaB Program and Sector Project Promotion Unit, Issyk-Kul Biosphere Reserve Administration and to Mairam Sarieva, FD, who even joined us on one of our fishing trips and to Mr. Arynov Abazbek, Deputy Director of SAEPF Interregional Inspection Service, Cholpon-Ata, and to Mr. Akylbek Sharipovich Egemberdiev, Deputy Director of Issyk-Kul Biosphere Reserve Administration, Balykchy, who all gave us a lot of their valuable time and ideas to discuss and improve our final BDFMR proposal. We are grateful to Ahmed Khan and two unknown referees for their constructive criticism which we believe improved the paper. Last but not the least we want to thank all those fishermen (unnamed due to the moratorium) who spent nights with us to teach us more on the real life and fishing problems in the Issyk-Kul Lake.

Supplementary material

13280_2011_140_MOESM1_ESM.doc (100 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 100 kb)

References

  1. Alamanov, A., and H. Mikkola, eds. 2009. Workshop report on Lake Issyk-Kul biodiversity friendly fisheries management regime proposal and fisheries co-management. Ecocentre, Cholpon-Ata, Kyrgyzstan, 10–12 September 2009. GCP/KYR/003/FIN FAO Field Document 1/2009, 92 pp.Google Scholar
  2. Alpiev, M. 2009. New approach to conservation of biodiversity in ichtyofauna of Lake Issyk-Kul, 108–113 pp. In Structure of the biodiversity friendly fisheries management regime within the Lake Issyk-Kul, Kyrgyzstan. UNDP/GEF Project: Strengthening policy and regulatory framework for mainstreaming biodiversity into fishery sector, eds. A. Alamanov and H. Mikkola. Cholpon-Ata, 113 pp.Google Scholar
  3. Alpiev, M.N. 2006. Internal water ecosystems. In Third National Report on Saving of Biodiversity in the Kyrgyz Republic. Bishkek (in Russian).Google Scholar
  4. Baetov, R. 2003. Management of the Issyk-Kul basin. Mimeo 28/08/2003, 22 pp.Google Scholar
  5. Ball, D. 2004. Lake Victoria: The problems and options, 1–2. http://aquarticles.com/articles/management/Ball_2Victoria.html. Accessed 21 Oct 2010.
  6. Chege, N. 1995. Lake Victoria: A sick giant. People & the Planet, 1–4. http://cichlid-forum.com/articles/lake_victoria_sick.php. Accessed 21 Nov 2010.
  7. Davletkeldiev, A.A. ed. 2006. Red Data Book of Kyrgyz Republic. State Agency on Environment Protection and Forestry under the Government of Kyrgyz Republic, Institute for Biology and Pedology of National Academy of Sciences of Kyrgyz Republic, Ecological Movement “Aleine”, 2nd edition. Bishkek, 544 pp (In Russian).Google Scholar
  8. FAO. 1995. Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 41 pp.Google Scholar
  9. FAO. 1997. Definition of a Management Plan. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. http://www.fao.org. Accessed 21 Nov 2010.
  10. FAO. 2008. Support to Fishery and Aquaculture Management in Kyrgyz Republic. FAO Trust Fund Project GCP/KYR/003/FIN, FAO, Rome, Italy, 80 pp.Google Scholar
  11. FishBase. 2009. http://fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php. Accessed 22 Feb 2009.
  12. Government of the Kyrgyz Republic. 1997. Fishery Law of the Kyrgyz Republic #39, 25 June 1997. Bishkek (in Russian).Google Scholar
  13. Great Lakes Information Network. 2003. Invasive species in the Great Lakes Region, 1–8. http://great-lakes.net/envt/flora-fauna/invasive/invasive.htlm. Accessed 28 Nov 2010.
  14. Ilibezova, E., L. Ilibezova, and E. Selezneva. 2005. Research of Households and Communities under the Project on Preservation of Ichtyofauna of the Lake of Issyk-Kul Basin. Public Opinion Research Center El-Pikir, Bishkek, 28 pp.Google Scholar
  15. Imanaliev, K. 2004. Kyrgyzstan (The Word about Homeland). BBK, Bishkek, 248 pp.Google Scholar
  16. Khan, A.S., H. Mikkola, and R. Brummett. 2006. Fisheries co-management in Africa (La gestion commune des pêcheries en Afrique). Revue Congolaise des Transports et des Affaires Maritimes 3(5): 65–82.Google Scholar
  17. Konurbaev, A.O., and S.R. Timirkhanov. 2003. Looking at fishes in Kyrgyzia—Central Asia. Daru Ltd, Bishkek, 120 pp.Google Scholar
  18. Konurbaev, A.O. 2004. Fish farm as a value sector. Collection of scientific basis of complex development of Issyk-Kul oblast of the Kyrgyz Republic. Bishkek, 284 pp (in Russian).Google Scholar
  19. Konurbaev, A.O., L.A. Kustareva, M.N. Alpiev, D.T. Kabatev, and E.S. Konurbaev. 2005. Conditions of Issyk Kul Lake Ichtiofauna, fishery and its management. Mimeo, Bishkek, 24 pp.Google Scholar
  20. Mikkola, H. 2009a. GCP/KYR/003/FIN “Support to fishery and aquaculture management in the Kyrgyz Republic”. FAN FAO Aquaculture Newsletter 43: 6–7.Google Scholar
  21. Mikkola, H. 2009b. Kyrgyzstan-protecting fisheries. Meat Trade News Daily, 27/10/2009.Google Scholar
  22. Mikkola, H. 2010. Introductions causing serious problems to endemic fish. Suomen Luonto 69(4): 15–16 (In Finnish).Google Scholar
  23. Niyazov, B. 2007. Condition of fish farming in the Kyrgyz Republic in 2006. Paper presented at the National Workshop on Fisheries and Aquaculture in the Kyrgyz Republic: Status and prospects to increase the contribution of the sector to food security, EU/FAO/Government of Kyrgyzstan, Bishkek, 12 Sept 2007.Google Scholar
  24. Njie, M., and H. Mikkola. 2001. A fisheries co-management case study from The Gambia. Naga, The ICLARM Quarterly 24(3–4): 40–49.Google Scholar
  25. Njie, M., and H. Mikkola. 2002. Management and development of the Gambia River fisheries. A case for the co-management of inland fisheries resources, pp. 228–239. In Africa’s inland fisheries: The management challenge, ed. K. Geheb and M-T. Sarch. Fountain Publishers, Kampala, Uganda, 280 pp.Google Scholar
  26. Pavlova, M.V. 1964. Zoobenthos of Issyk-Kul Lake bays and their use by fishes. Printing Ilim, Frunze, 95 pp (in Russian).Google Scholar
  27. Petr, T., and V.P. Mitrofanov. 1998. The impact on fish stocks of river regulation in Central Asia and Kazakhstan. Lakes and Reservoirs: Research and Management 3: 143–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Rispaev, A., and A. Woynárovich. 2008. Practical recommendations on protection of endemic and control of alien fish species in the Lake Issyk-Kul and sustainable management of fish farms in Issyk-Kul Oblast. UNDP/GEF-Project, Bishkek, 124 pp.Google Scholar
  29. Sarieva, M., M. Alpiev, R. Van Anrooy, J. Jørgensen, A. Thorpe, and A. Mena Millar. 2008. Capture fisheries and aquaculture in the Kyrgyz Republic: Current status and planning. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 1030 (SEC/FIMF/FIEP/C 1030 En), 107 pp.Google Scholar
  30. Svärdson, G., N-A. Nilsson, H. Dahlström, and P. Tuunainen. 1968. Fish, management of fishing waters and fish farming). Kirjayhtymä, Helsinki, 302 pp (In Finnish).Google Scholar
  31. Thorpe, A., R. Van Anrooy, B.N. Niyazov, M.K. Sarieva, J. Valbo-Jørgensen, and A. Mena Millar. 2009. The collapse of the fisheries sector in Kyrgyzstan: an analysis of its roots and its prospects for revival. Communist and Post-Communist Studies 42: 141–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. UNDP. 2007a. Kyrgyzstan. Environment and Natural Resources for Sustainable Development. State Agency on Environment Protection and Forestry under the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic and United Nations Development Programme in the Kyrgyz Republic. Bishkek, 85 pp.Google Scholar
  33. UNDP. 2007b. Access of men and women to the natural resources of Kyrgyzstan. United Nations Development Programme in the Kyrgyz Republic and State Agency on Environment Protection and Forestry under the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic. Survey B, Bishkek, 40 pp.Google Scholar
  34. UNDP. 2008a. Poverty alleviation through sustainable development of local communities. United Nations Development Programme in the Kyrgyz Republic. Bishkek, 194 pp.Google Scholar
  35. UNDP, 2008b. Strengthening policy and regulatory framework for mainstreaming biodiversity into fishery sector. PIMS 3212, Bishkek, 31 pp.Google Scholar
  36. Wilson, D., J. Nielsen, and P. Degnbol, eds. 2003. The fisheries co-management experience: Accomplishment, challenges and prospects. London: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  37. Zabirov, R.D., and V. N. Korotaev. 1978. Characteristics and morphometry of the lake. In Ozero Issyk-Kul, 3–48. Printing Ilim, Frunze (in Russian).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.EcocentreCholpon-AtaKyrgyzstan
  2. 2.Fisheries and Aquaculture ManagementUniversity of Eastern FinlandKuopioFinland

Personalised recommendations