Can Repeated Fertilizer Applications to Young Norway Spruce Enhance Avian Diversity in Intensively Managed Forests?
- 92 Downloads
Repeated fertilization of forests to increase biomass production is an environmentally controversial proposal, the effects of which we assessed on breeding birds in stands of young Norway spruce (Picea abies), in an intensively managed forest area in southern Sweden. Our results show that fertilized stands had 38% more species and 21% more individuals than unfertilized stands. Compared with stands under traditional management, the further intensification of forestry by repeated applications of fertilizers thus seemed to enhance species richness and abundance of forest birds. We cannot conclude at this stage whether the response in the bird community was caused by changes in food resources or increased structural complexity in the forest canopy due to the skid roads used for the application of the fertilizers. Future studies should focus on structural and compositional effects of fertilization processes during the entire rotation period and at assessing its effects in a landscape context.
KeywordsIntensive forestry Fertilization Birds Biodiversity Norway spruce
We gratefully acknowledge the Swedish Energy Agency for funding this study. Thanks to Johan Frisk, Södra, for help in planning the fieldwork, Matts Lindbladh and three anonymous reviewers who provided valuable comments on the manuscript.
- Ahti, T., L. Hämet-Ahti, and J. Jalas. 1968. Vegetation zones and their sections in northwestern Europe. Annales Botanici Fennici 5: 169–211.Google Scholar
- Alerstam, T. 1982. Fågelflyttning, 295. Uppsala: Signum (in Swedish).Google Scholar
- Angelstam, P., J.-M. Roberge, A. Lõhmus, M. Bergmanis, G. Brazaitis, M. Dönz-Breuss, L. Edenius, Z. Kosinski, et al. 2004. Habitat modelling as a tool for landscape-scale conservation–a review of parameters for focal forest birds. Ecological Bulletins 51: 427–453.Google Scholar
- Bergh, J., ed. 2000. Fiberskog—a report from a research programme on intense forestry. Report no 6, Department for Production Ecology, Faculty of Forestry, SLU, 66. ISSN 1401-5625.Google Scholar
- Bergh, J., U. Nilsson, H. Grip, P.-O. Hedwall, and T. Lundmark. 2008. Effects of frequency of fertilization on production, foliar chemistry and nutrient leaching in young Norway spruce stands in Sweden. Silva Fennica 42: 721–733.Google Scholar
- Cramp, S., C.M. Perrins, and D. Brooks. 1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe the Middle East and North Africa. The birds of western palearctic, vol. 6. Oxford, New York: Crows to Finches Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Dolnik, V.R. 1982. Population ecology of the Chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs). In Proceedings of the zoological Institute, Vol. 90. Leningrad: Nauka. (in Russian with English summary). Google Scholar
- Fredén, C. (ed.). 1994. Geology. Stockholm: National Atlas of Sweden.Google Scholar
- Hartmann, H., G. Daoust, B. Bigué, and C. Messier. 2010. Negative or positive effects of plantation and intensive forestry on biodiversity: A matter of scale and perspective. Forestry Chronicle 86: 354–364.Google Scholar
- Kneeshaw, D.D., A. Leduc, P. Drapeau, S. Gauthier, D. Pare, R. Carignan, R. Doucet, and C. Messier. 2000. Development of integrated ecological standards of sustainable forest management at an operational scale. Forestry Chronicle 76: 481–493.Google Scholar
- Niemi, G.J., J. Hanowski, P. Helle, R. Howe, M. Mönkkönen, L. Venier, and D.A. Welsh. 1998. Ecological sustainability of birds in boreal systems. Conservation Ecology (online) 2(2): art. 17. http://www.consecol.org/vol2/iss2/art17.
- Raab, B., and H. Vedin (eds.). 1995. Climate, lakes and rivers. Stockholm: National Atlas of Sweden.Google Scholar
- Rochelle, J.A. 1981. The effects of forest fertilization on wildlife. In Proceedings of 1979 forest fertilization conference, ed. S. P. Gessel et al., 164–167. Institute of Forest Resources, Contribution No. 40. Seattle: University of Washington.Google Scholar
- Skogsstyrelsen, 2008. Skogliga konsekvensanalyser—SKA-VB 08. Swedish Forest Agency Rapport 25/2008, 157. (in Swedish).Google Scholar
- Tamm, C.-O. 1991. Nitrogen in terrestrial ecosystems. Berlin: Springer Verlag.Google Scholar