, Volume 39, Issue 2, pp 116–125 | Cite as

Variation in Organic Matter and Water Color in Lake Mälaren during the Past 70 Years

  • L. Johansson
  • J. Temnerud
  • J. Abrahamsson
  • D. Berggren Kleja
Review Paper


Interest in long time series of organic matter data has recently increased due to concerns about the effects of global climate change on aquatic ecosystems. This study presents and evaluates unique time series of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and water color from Lake Mälaren, Sweden, stretching almost seven decades (1935–2004). A negative linear trend was found in COD, but not in water color. The decrease was mainly due to installation of sewage works around 1970. Time series of COD and water color had cyclic pattern. It was strongest for COD, with 23 years periodicity. Similar periodicity observed in air temperature and precipitation in Sweden has been attributed to the North Atlantic Oscillation index and solar system orbit, suggesting that COD in Lake Mälaren is partly derived from algae. Discharge influenced water color more than COD, possibly because water color consists of colored substances brought into the lake from surrounding soils.


Chemical Oxygen Demand Hydraulic Retention Time Sine Function North Atlantic Oscillation Index Water Color 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Our thanks to Stockholm Water Company for funding parts of this study and to all those involved in the sampling and analysis of the water. Olle Svedberg provided detailed information on the Lovö Waterworks, while Anders Lindsjö prepared Fig. 1. Kevin Bishop, Stefan Löfgren, Gesa Weyhenmeyer and Anders Wilander are acknowledged for valuable discussions and comments on earlier drafts of this paper.


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Copyright information

© Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. Johansson
    • 1
  • J. Temnerud
    • 2
  • J. Abrahamsson
    • 3
  • D. Berggren Kleja
    • 4
  1. 1.The Swedish Mapping, Cadastral and Land Registration AuthorityGävleSweden
  2. 2.Department of Aquatic Sciences and AssessmentSwedish University of Agricultural SciencesUppsalaSweden
  3. 3.LEVA I Lysekil ABLysekilSweden
  4. 4.Department of Soil and EnvironmentSwedish University of Agricultural SciencesUppsalaSweden

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