Genes & Genomics

, Volume 40, Issue 4, pp 429–446 | Cite as

Genome-wide identification of WRKY transcription factors in kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.) and analysis of WRKY expression in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses

Research Article
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Abstract

As one of the largest transcriptional factor families in plants, WRKY transcription factors play important roles in various biotic and abiotic stress responses. To date, WRKY genes in kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.) remain poorly understood. In our study, o total of 97 AcWRKY genes have been identified in the kiwifruit genome. An overview of these AcWRKY genes is analyzed, including the phylogenetic relationships, exon–intron structures, synteny and expression profiles. The 97 AcWRKY genes were divided into three groups based on the conserved WRKY domain. Synteny analysis indicated that segmental duplication events contributed to the expansion of the kiwifruit AcWRKY family. In addition, the synteny analysis between kiwifruit and Arabidopsis suggested that some of the AcWRKY genes were derived from common ancestors before the divergence of these two species. Conserved motifs outside the AcWRKY domain may reflect their functional conservation. Genome-wide segmental and tandem duplication were found, which may contribute to the expansion of AcWRKY genes. Furthermore, the analysis of selected AcWRKY genes showed a variety of expression patterns in five different organs as well as during biotic and abiotic stresses. The genome-wide identification and characterization of kiwifruit WRKY transcription factors provides insight into the evolutionary history and is a useful resource for further functional analyses of kiwifruit.

Keywords

Abiotic and biotic stress Evolution Expression profile Kiwifruit Phylogenetic analysis WRKY genes 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the earmarked fund for China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2015M582712), Postdoctoral Science Foundation of Shaanxi Province (2016BSHYDZZ07), Science and Technology Research and Development Program of Shaanxi Province (2015KTZDNY02-03-01, 2016KJXX-58). We thank AJE (https://www.aje.com/) for editing this manuscript, Chunlei Guo, Li Wang, Jinhua Yang, and Jiao Zhao for teaching data analysis.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Zhaobin Jing, Zhande Liu declares that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

13258_2017_645_MOESM1_ESM.tif (2.4 mb)
The distribution of AcWRKY genes in kiwifruit chromosomes. The number of WRKY genes shown at the top in each chromosome. Thirteen of the 97 AcWRKY could not be mapped to any chromosome and not shown. Supplementary material 1 (TIF 2450 KB)
13258_2017_645_MOESM2_ESM.tif (4.8 mb)
Expression profiles of ten AcWRKY genes under salt, drought and Psa treatments analyzed using semi-quantitative PCR. Supplementary material 2 (TIF 4886 KB)
13258_2017_645_MOESM3_ESM.tif (4.5 mb)
Expression profiles of ten AcWRKY genes under hormone treatments analyzed using semi-quantitative PCR. (Ethylene-Eth; methyl jasmonic acid-MeJA; abscisic acid-ABA; gibberellins-GA; salisylic acid-SA). Supplementary material 3 (TIF 4622 KB)
13258_2017_645_MOESM4_ESM.xls (32 kb)
Supplementary material 4 (XLS 32 KB)
13258_2017_645_MOESM5_ESM.docx (17 kb)
Supplementary material 5 (DOCX 16 KB)
13258_2017_645_MOESM6_ESM.docx (19 kb)
Supplementary material 6 (DOCX 18 KB)
13258_2017_645_MOESM7_ESM.xlsx (15 kb)
Supplementary material 7 (XLSX 14 KB)
13258_2017_645_MOESM8_ESM.xlsx (13 kb)
Supplementary material 8 (XLSX 12 KB)

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Copyright information

© The Genetics Society of Korea and Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of HorticultureNorthwest A&F UniversityYanglingChina
  2. 2.Weinan Vocational and Technical CollegeWeinan Fruit Industry InstituteWeinanChina

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