The genus Laticauda (Reptilia: Elapidae), commonly known as sea kraits, is venomous marine amphibious snakes distributed throughout the south and southeast Asian islands and mostly found in coastal waters. To facilitate genetic studies, we have developed microsatellite loci for L. semifasciata using the 454 GS-FLX pyrosequencing technique. A total of 65,680 sequences containing a minimum of five repeat motifs were identified from 451,659 reads. Among 80 loci containing more than nine repeat units, 34 primer sets (42.5%) produced strong PCR products, of which 21 were polymorphic among 36 samples of L. semifasciata. All loci exhibited high genetic variability, with an average of 7.38 alleles per locus, and the mean observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.73 and 0.76, respectively. The cross-species amplification of these loci in two laticaudine species, L. colubrina and L. laticaudata, revealed a high transferability (78.6%) and polymorphism (59.5%) of the loci. Our work demonstrated the utility of next-generation 454 sequencing as the rapid and cost-effective method for development of microsatellite markers. The high level of polymorphism in these microsatellite loci will be useful for the detection of population subdivision and the study of migration, gene flow, relatedness and philopatry of L. semifasciata and other laticaudine species.
Laticauda semifasciataMicrosatellite loci Pyrosequencing Genetic variability Cross-species amplification
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This work is funded by a grant from the National Marine Biodiversity Institute of Korea (MABIK) and is contribution number, 2017M01200, 2017M02000 and Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (2014R1A1A4A01005302). Views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of MABIK.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Young Se Hyun, Il-Hun Kim, Ha Yeun Song, Daesik Park, Mamoru Toda, Tein-Shun Tai and Hye Suck An declare that there is no conflict of interest.
All animal experiments were performed in accordance with the ethical guidelines of National Marine Biodiversity Institute of Korea.
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