Transcriptome analysis of gene expression patterns during embryonic development in golden cuttlefish (Sepia esculenta)
Golden cuttlefish (Sepia esculenta) is an important economic species in China. Because of the rapid decline of its natural resource, researchers are exploring breeding technique for this species. The major obstacle that hinders artificial breeding of S. esculenta is the low larvae survival rate. Mortality is especially high during the mouth-opening stage. Investigating the embryogenesis before the first feed could provide theoretical guidance for reproduction control and breeding of S. esculenta and other Sepia species. In this study, we analyzed the dynamics of the S. esculenta transcriptome along different stages of embryonic development by mRNA-sEq. Our bioinformatics protocol identified 1492 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) across the early developmental stages. Gene ontology enrichment analysis showed that the DEGs were significantly involved in developmental processes and molecular functions, including chitin metabolic process, peptidase activity, catalytic activity, and calcium ion binding. Our results indicated that genes related to cuttlebone development and gene regulation functions were active during the early life phase of S. esculenta. Hierarchical clustering of the DEGs reflected the successiveness of the developmental stages, revealing that gene expression patterns of neighboring stages were similar. The DEG analysis allowed us to identify specific genes and relevant biological pathways to better understand the molecular mechanisms during each developmental stage. This study provides novel insights into the processes underlying the early developmental stages of S. esculenta. The transcriptomic data and identified genes will serve as valuable references for the developmental biology of this species and will help promote its aquaculture research.
KeywordsGolden cuttlefish Sepia esculenta Transcriptomics Embryonic development Aquaculture
This work was supported by National Key Technology Support Program (2011BAD13B08) and National standard (2130109).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Li Bian declares that he does not have conflict of interest. Changlin Liu declares that he does not have conflict of interest. Siqing Chen declares that he does not have conflict of interest. Fazhen Zhao declares that he does not have conflict of interest. Jianlong Ge declares that he does not have conflict of interest. Jie Tan declares that he does not have conflict of interest.
Human and animal rights
All procedures involving the rearing and treatment of cuttlefish used during this study were approved by the Review Committee for the Use of Animal Subjects of Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences. In China, academic research on golden cuttlefish is highly encouraged and does not necessitate particular permits.
- Bell JG, Castell JD, Tocher DR, Macdonald FM, Sargent JR (1995) Effects of different dietary arachidonic acid: docosahexaenoic acid ratios on phospholipid fatty acid compositions and prostaglandin production in juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Fish Physiol Biochem 14:139–151CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chen SQ et al (2010) Observations on the embryonic development of Sepia esculenta Hoyle. Mar Fish Res 31:1–7 (Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
- Hao ZL, Zhang XM, Zhang PD (2007) Biological characteristics and multiplication techniques of Sepia esculenta. Chin J Ecol 26:601–606 (Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
- Lee PG, Turk PE, Forsythe JW, Dimarco FP (1998) Cephalopod culture: physiological, behavioral and environmental requirements. Aquac Sci 46:417–422Google Scholar
- Lei S, Wu C, Gao T, Hao Z, Zhang X (2011) A comparative study of Sepia esculenta and Sepiella maindroni on embryonic development and ability of salinity tolerance. J Fish Sci China 18:350–359 (Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
- Liu C, Zhao F, Chen S, Qin B, Ruan F, Ge J (2016a) Changes of the main biochemical composition during embryonic development stage of Sepia esculenta. Period Ocean Univ China 46:62–72 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
- Monroig Ó, Hontoria F, Varó I, Tocher DR, Navarro JC (2016) Investigating the essential fatty acids in the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Mollusca, Cephalopoda): molecular cloning and functional characterisation of fatty acyl desaturase and elongase. Aquaculture 450:38–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Okutani T (1995) Cuttlefish and squids of the world in color. National Cooperative Association of Squid Processors, Tokyo, JapanGoogle Scholar
- Xiao S (2003) The preliminary studies on the mechanism of calcification in cephalopod cuttlebones. Dissertation, Ocean University of ChinaGoogle Scholar