Carbon footprint for designing reverse logistics network with hybrid manufacturing-remanufacturing systems


This article proposes one further step toward the design of Sustainable Manufacturing Enterprise. This article presents an integrated approach for designing a reverse logistics network by minimizing the carbon emissions and the transportation distances between different candidate centers while considering several system design and operational issues of a Hybrid Manufacturing-Remanufacturing System operating within the above-mentioned reverse logistics network. Accordingly, the article attempts to integrate various sustainability aspects indoctrinated in the Sustainable Manufacturing philosophy. In view of this, a mixed integer programming model for designing a reverse logistics network is developed. The model considers the carbon foot print, facility location, and the material flow aspects of the reverse logistics network; in which a hybrid manufacturing-remanufacturing system is integrated. A detailed discussion of a numerical example is presented to illustrate the proposed model. The model has potential applications for supply chain managers designing a reverse logistics networks as well as for production managers at the operations level.

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This research was in part supported by grants from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) and funds from the Faculty of Engineering and Computer Science (ENCS) of Concordia University.

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Correspondence to Akif Asil Bulgak.

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Appendix 1

Appendix 1

Tables 2, 3, 4 and 5 present the example input data. Table 2 shows the setup cost for each potential center and the equivalent CO2 to be emitted by each potential center. Table 3 gives the capacity for each manufacturing and the demand for each component type. Table 4 presents the capacity of the disposal and recycling centers and the number of components contained in a product. Distances between each and every pair of centers are shown in Table 5. Percentage rates of returned products are as follows: M1 = 0.3 and M2 = 0.5. CO2. Transportation emissions factor per unit of returned product/component in g/km is 0.01, and the cost of carbon credits in $ per ton CO2 is 10, and the legal limit of the CO2 quantity can be emitted each year is 5000. Transportation cost for components 1, 2, and 3 are 2, 3, and 4 dollars per component respectively, while transportation cost for products 1 and 2 are 8 and 9 dollars per product respectively.

Table 2 Setup cost and CO2 equivalent for each center
Table 3 Demand and Manufacturing facility capacity in terms of components
Table 4 Disposal and recycling centers capacity and number of components contained in product
Table 5 Distances between disassembly, manufacturing, disposal, recycling, and collection centers

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Aljuneidi, T., Bulgak, A.A. Carbon footprint for designing reverse logistics network with hybrid manufacturing-remanufacturing systems. Jnl Remanufactur 10, 107–126 (2020).

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  • Reverse logistics
  • Facility location
  • Sustainable supply chain
  • Sustainable manufacturing
  • Carbon footprints
  • Hybrid manufacturing-remanufacturing systems