Evaluation of the Effect of Crosslinking Method of Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Hydrogels on Thrombogenicity



Crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) is a biomaterial that can be used for multiple cardiovascular applications. The success of implanted biomaterials is contingent on the properties of the material. A crucial consideration for blood-contacting devices is their potential to incite thrombus formation, which is dependent on the material surface properties. The goal of this study was to quantify the effect of different crosslinking methods of PVA hydrogels on in vitro thrombogenicity.


PVA was manufactured using three different crosslinking methods: 30% sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP), three 24 h freeze–thaw cycles (FT), and 2% glutaraldehyde-crosslinked (GA) to produce STMP-PVA, FT-PVA and GA-PVA, respectively. Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) was used as a clinical control. As markers of thrombus formation, the degree of coagulation factor (F) XII activation, fibrin formation, and platelet adhesion were measured.


The GA-PVA material increased FXII activation in the presence of cofactors compared to vehicle and increase platelet adhesion compared to other PVA surfaces. The STMP-PVA and FT-PVA materials had equivalent degrees of FXII activation, fibrin formation and platelet adhesion.


This work supports crosslinker dependent thrombogenicity of PVA hydrogels and advances our understanding of how the manufacturing of a PVA hydrogel affects its hemocompatibility.

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This work was supported by the Achievement Rewards for College Scientists (ARCS) Foundation and the National Institutes of Health Grants R01HL130274 and R01HL144113.


Dr. Owen JT McCarty received research Grant Number R01HL144113 from the National Institutes of Health. Dr. Monica T Hinds received research Grant Numbers R01HL130274 and R01HL144113 from the National Institutes of Health.

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Correspondence to Novella M. Bates.

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Novella M Bates, Dr. Cristina Puy, and Dr. Patrick L Jurney declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Bates, N.M., Puy, C., Jurney, P.L. et al. Evaluation of the Effect of Crosslinking Method of Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Hydrogels on Thrombogenicity. Cardiovasc Eng Tech (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13239-020-00474-y

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  • Poly(vinyl alcohol)
  • Crosslinking
  • Hydrogel
  • Vascular graft
  • Thrombogenicity