Molecular analysis of genetic diversity and population structure in Everniastrum cirrhatum (Fr.) Hale (Parmeliaceae) in India
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Everniastrum cirrhatum is a medicinally important lichen used in Ayurvedic and Unani systems of medicine. In the present study, DAMD and ISSR methods were used to estimate the genetic variation and population structure of E. cirrhatum collected from different geographical regions of India. Four DAMD and ten ISSR primers detected 42 and 110 polymorphic bands and accounted for 95.65 and 94.24% polymorphisms, respectively. Cumulative band data generated for DAMD and ISSR markers resulted into 94.95% polymorphism across all the accessions of E. cirrhatum. The UPGMA dendrogram showed two major clusters. The clustering pattern in the UPGMA dendrogram revealed that the groupings are largely in congruence with the geographical distribution of the accessions. Clustering patterns in STRUCTURE revealed that geographical diversity is perfectly in congruence with the genetic diversity. The clustering pattern in STRUCTURE was also supported by PCoA. Mantel test for matrix correlation showed a weak but positive correlation between genetic and geographical distance. The hierarchical analysis of molecular variance revealed that maximum percentage of variation was found within a population (57%), followed by among regions (28%) and among populations (15%). The present study provides significant insight into the genetic variability and population structure of E. cirrhatum. Understanding population structure would provide baseline information for developing its sustainable management strategies. It would also be important to conserve populations of E. cirrhatum in different localities of the Himalayan regions to prevent population decline caused by anthropogenic and environmental stochastic effects.
KeywordsDAMD DNA marker Genetic variations ISSR Molecular tools
The study was financially supported by the Department of Biotechnology, New Delhi (No. BT/PR1457/39/204/2011).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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