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Dismantling Marchandiomphalina into Agonimia (Verrucariaceae) and Lawreymyces gen. nov. (Corticiaceae): setting a precedent to the formal recognition of thousands of voucherless fungi based on type sequences

Abstract

Based on an unexpected result of obtaining molecular sequence data from tropical representatives of the genus Normandina, we revised the biological concept of the neotropical taxon Marchandiomphalina foliacea. The obtained data let us conclude that M. foliacea is not a basidiomycete, as originally proposed, but belongs in Verrucariaceae, in the genus Agonimia, including its perithecia which had been identified with the lichenicolous Norrlinia peltigericola. The ITS (and nuLSU) sequences previously obtained from M. foliacea, seemingly confirming its status as a basidiomycete, are from an unmanifested lichenicolous fungus, present also in numerous specimens of Normandina. ITS data suggest the presence of seven lineages that can be recognized at the species level, forming two clusters: one cluster of three lineages found in thalli of M. foliacea, and a second cluster of four lineages found in thalli of Normandina. This pattern is similar to what has recently been found in the basidiomycete genus Cyphobasidium occurring predominantly in Parmeliaceae lichens. We propose the combination of Omphalina foliacea into the genus Agonimia, as Agonimia foliacea (P.M. Jørg.) Lücking & Moncada, comb. nov., and place Marchandiomphalina in synonymy with Agonimia. To formally recognize the unnamed lichenicolous basidiomycete present in Agonimia and Normandina thalli, we take advantage of provision ICN Art. 40.5 in the Code and describe the unmanifested fungus as a new genus, with seven new species, even if no physical type specimens can be preserved (except for the corresponding host lichens which, however, do not show the features of the fungus): Lawreymyces Lücking & Moncada, gen. nov. (Type: L. palicei), with L. bogotensis Lücking & Moncada, sp. nov., L. columbiensis Lücking & Moncada, sp. nov., L. confusus Lücking & Moncada, sp. nov., L, foliaceae Lücking & Moncada, sp. nov., L. palicei Lücking & Moncada, sp. nov., L. pulchellae Lücking & Moncada, sp. nov., and L. spribillei Lücking & Moncada, sp. nov. This opens the door to the formal recognition of thousands of species of voucherless fungi detected through environmental sequencing techniques under the current Code.

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Acknowledgements

This study was partially supported by two grants from the National Science Foundation: Neotropical Epiphytic MicrolichensAn Innovative Inventory of a Highly Diverse yet Little Known Group of Symbiotic Organisms (DEB 0715660 to The Field Museum; PI R. Lücking), and Phylogenetic Diversity of Mycobionts and Photobionts in the Cyanolichen Genus Dictyonema, with Emphasis on the Neotropics and the Galapagos Islands (DEB 0841405 to George Mason University; PI J. Lawrey; Co-PIs: R. Lücking, P. Gillevet). The Verein der Freunde des Botanischen Gartens und Botanischen Museums Berlin-Dahlem e.V. (https://www.bgbm.org/de/BGBM/freunde/index.html) supported molecular sequencing work for specimens collected as part of the Pilotprojekt Kooperation mit dem Botanischen Garten Bogotá (BMBF, see below). The Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas, Bogotá, is thanked for the support to the lichen herbarium and the curatorial work of the UDBC collections, and the Field Museum and the BGBM kindly provided the logistics for the molecular work. The Jardín Botánico de Bogotá José Celestino Mutis organized the field trip to Pasquilla (Bogotá), by agreement with the Botanical Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin, partially financed through the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF; Pilotprojekt Kooperation mit dem Botanischen Garten Bogotá; Förderkennzeichen: 01DN13030). Paul Diederich is warmely thanked for placing a photograph of Agonimia globulifera at our disposal.

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Lücking, R., Moncada, B. Dismantling Marchandiomphalina into Agonimia (Verrucariaceae) and Lawreymyces gen. nov. (Corticiaceae): setting a precedent to the formal recognition of thousands of voucherless fungi based on type sequences. Fungal Diversity 84, 119–138 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13225-017-0382-4

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Keywords

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  • International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants
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