Annals of Microbiology

, Volume 68, Issue 5, pp 305–312 | Cite as

Effect of inorganic salt stress on the thermotolerance and ethanol production at high temperature of Pichia kudriavzevii

  • Chunsheng Li
  • Laihao Li
  • Xianqing Yang
  • Yanyan Wu
  • Yongqiang Zhao
  • Yueqi Wang
Original Article


Application of cross-protection is expected to improve the thermotolerance of yeasts to enhance their ethanol production at high temperature. In this study, the effects of eight kinds of inorganic salts on the thermotolerance and ethanol production at high temperature in Pichia kudriavzevii were investigated. P. kudriavzevii showed strong thermotolerance and the ability to produce ethanol at high temperature, and higher ethanol production of P. kudriavzevii was observed at high temperature (37–42 °C) compared with that at 30 °C. Inorganic salt stresses induced obvious cross-protection of thermotolerance in P. kudriavzevii. The presence of 0.1 mol/L KNO3 or Na2SO4 or 0.2 mol/L NaCl, KCl, NaNO3, K2SO4 or MgCl2 increased the yeast biomass in YEPD medium at 44 °C to 2.72–3.46 g/L, obviously higher than that in the absence of salt stress (2.17 g/L). The addition of NaCl, KCl, NaNO3, KNO3, Na2SO4, K2SO4, CaCl2 and MgCl2 significantly increased the ethanol production of P. kudriavzevii in YEPD fermentation medium at 44 °C by 37–58%. KCl and MgCl2 exhibited the best performance on improving the thermotolerance and ethanol production, respectively, of P. kudriavzevii. A highly significant correlation (P < 0.01) was obtained among ethanol production, biomass and glucose consumption, suggesting the important role of thermotolerance and glucose consumption in enhanced ethanol production. The combination of NaCl, KCl and MgCl2 had a synergistic effect on the improvement of thermotolerance and ethanol production at high temperature in P. kudriavzevii. This study provides some important clues for improving ethanol production of thermotolerant yeasts at high temperature.


Pichia kudriavzevii Inorganic salt Thermotolerance Ethanol production Cross-protection 



The authors would like to thank the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31301454), the Central Public-interest Scientific Institution Basal Research Fund, South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute, CAFS (No. 2015TS23), and the Science and Technology Program of Guangzhou of China (No. 201707010300) for financial support .

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

13213_2018_1339_MOESM1_ESM.docx (383 kb)
Fig. S1 Effect of various concentrations of NaCl, KCl, NaNO3, KNO3, Na2SO4, K2SO4, CaCl2 and MgCl2 on the glucose consumption, ethanol production and glycerol production of P. kudriavzevii cultivated for 24 h at 44 °C in YEPD medium. (DOCX 383 kb)
13213_2018_1339_MOESM2_ESM.docx (248 kb)
Fig. S2 Effect of various concentrations of NaCl, KCl, NaNO3, KNO3, Na2SO4, K2SO4, CaCl2 and MgCl2 on the ethanol yield of P. kudriavzevii cultivated for 24 h at 44 °C in YEPD fermentation medium. Bars labeled with different letters are statistically different (P < 0.05) tested by one-way ANOVA and multiple comparison Tukey test. (DOCX 247 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature and the University of Milan 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Aquatic Product Processing, Ministry of Agriculture, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Fishery Ecology Environment, South China Sea Fisheries Research InstituteChinese Academy of Fishery SciencesGuangzhouChina

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