Industrial wastewater discharges pose an environmental risk. Here, the effectiveness of an up-flow vertical hybrid system, operating with synthetic and industrial wastewater was investigated, as a new approach to perform nitrification/denitrification and desulfurization within a single reactor. The hybrid reactor is divided in two reaction zones, the oxic and anoxic. The removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonium, and sulfide was investigated, highlighting changes in microbial diversity. The reactor was evaluated at hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 1.6 days, and its performance throughout 180 days is presented in four stages. In stages I–II, high COD and ammonium removal was obtained with synthetic wastewater. In stage-III, sulfide-rich synthetic wastewater did not alter the system, attaining COD, ammonium, and sulfide removal efficiencies of 81, 99.5, and 99.7%, respectively. In the last stage, a mixture of effluents was fed into the reactor at loading rates of 277 mg COD/L-d, 46.5 mg NH4+-N /L-d, and 15 mg HS−-S /L-d. Sulfide and ammonium removals were 100% and 99.9%, respectively. However, low COD removal was observed, being of 51%, and the system removed 97% in terms of BOD5. The structure and microbial diversity also changed. Sulfide feeding, induced the proliferation of sulfur oxidizers like Thiomiscropira and Thiobacillus. Industrial wastewater enhanced the abundance of Pseudomonas (15.53%) and favored the proliferation of new bacteria of the genus Truepera (2.98%) and Alicyclipilus (7.56%). This is the first study reporting simultaneous nitrification/denitrification and desulfurization to remove ammonium, COD and sulfide from complex industrial wastewater using an up-flow vertical hybrid reactor.
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The second author acknowledges the support of CONACyT-Mexico through a scholarship to attend the doctorate of Oscar Velasco. Part of the project was supported by PRODEP-SEP-UAM-L-CA-3.
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On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.
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González-Blanco, G., Casas-Reyes, A., Velasco-Garduño, O. et al. Simultaneous nitrification/denitrification and desulfurization of wastewater polluted with ammonium, COD and sulfide: effectiveness of a new up-flow vertical hybrid reactor. 3 Biotech 11, 123 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13205-021-02671-5