Development of cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) and high-resolution melting (HRM) markers from the chloroplast genome of Glycyrrhiza species
Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) is an important medicinal crop often used as health foods or medicine worldwide. The molecular genetics of licorice is under scarce owing to lack of molecular markers. Here, we have developed cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) and high-resolution melting (HRM) markers based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) by comparing the chloroplast genomes of two Glycyrrhiza species (G. glabra and G. lepidota). The CAPS and HRM markers were tested for diversity analysis with 24 Glycyrrhiza accessions. The restriction profiles generated with CAPS markers classified the accessions (2–4 genotypes) and melting curves (2–3) were obtained from the HRM markers. The number of alleles and major allele frequency were 2−6 and 0.31–0.92, respectively. The genetic distance and polymorphism information content values were 0.16–0.76 and 0.15–0.72, respectively. The phylogenetic relationships among the 24 accessions were estimated using a dendrogram, which classified them into four clades. Except clade III, the remaining three clades included the same species, confirming interspecies genetic correlation. These 18 CAPS and HRM markers might be helpful for genetic diversity assessment and rapid identification of licorice species.
KeywordsLicorice Genetic diversity SNP CAPS HRM
Single nucleotide polymorphism
Cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence
Insertion and deletion
Polymorphism information content
Number of alleles
Major allele frequency
Simple sequence repeats
I-HJ and JS participated in the study design, coordinated the experiment, and drafted the manuscript; C-EH, SR, and K-HB performed the experiments; J-WC participated in the study design, collected samples, analyzed genetic diversity, and coordinated the draft of the manuscript. All authors critically read and approved the final manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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