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3 Biotech

, 8:216 | Cite as

Recent advances in conventional and contemporary methods for remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils

  • Swati Sharma
  • Sakshi Tiwari
  • Abshar Hasan
  • Varun Saxena
  • Lalit M. Pandey
Review Article

Abstract

Remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils has been drawing our attention toward it for quite some time now and a need for developing new methods toward reclamation has come up as the need of the hour. Conventional methods of heavy metal-contaminated soil remediation have been in use for decades and have shown great results, but they have their own setbacks. The chemical and physical techniques when used singularly generally generate by-products (toxic sludge or pollutants) and are not cost-effective, while the biological process is very slow and time-consuming. Hence to overcome them, an amalgamation of two or more techniques is being used. In view of the facts, new methods of biosorption, nanoremediation as well as microbial fuel cell techniques have been developed, which utilize the metabolic activities of microorganisms for bioremediation purpose. These are cost-effective and efficient methods of remediation, which are now becoming an integral part of all environmental and bioresource technology. In this contribution, we have highlighted various augmentations in physical, chemical, and biological methods for the remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils, weighing up their pros and cons. Further, we have discussed the amalgamation of the above techniques such as physiochemical and physiobiological methods with recent literature for the removal of heavy metals from the contaminated soils. These combinations have showed synergetic effects with a many fold increase in removal efficiency of heavy metals along with economic feasibility.

Keywords

Heavy metals Contaminated soils Nanoremediation Microbial fuel cells Biosorption 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, for financial supports (Sanction nos: DST/INSPIRE/04/2014/002020, ECR/2016/001027).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest in the publication of this article.

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© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Bio-Interface & Environmental Engineering Lab, Department of Biosciences and BioengineeringIndian Institute of TechnologyGuwahatiIndia

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