Advertisement

3 Biotech

, 8:200 | Cite as

Enhanced antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer activity of Rhizophora apiculata: An experimental report

  • V. Ramalingam
  • R. Rajaram
Original Article

Abstract

The present study is designed to evaluate the antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer activities of Rhizophora apiculata. Initially, the phenolic and flavonoid content was quantified in solvent extracts, and gallic acid and rutin were used as a control, respectively. Further, antimicrobial and minimal inhibitory activities of different solvent extracts were assessed against human clinical pathogenic bacteria, and the results showed that butanol and methanol extract has potential antimicrobial activity. FTIR analysis of solvent extracts showed the presence of phenolic compounds at 3409–3430 cm−1 that actively involved in various applications including antioxidant and anticancer activities. The in vitro antioxidant activity of solvent extracts showed excellent antioxidant potential, about 84% of DPPH free-radical scavenging, 76% of hydrogen peroxide, 82% of hydroxyl radical scavenging, and 80% of reducing power. Two-way ANOVA analysis showed that the highly significant effect of antioxidant activity depends on the concentration of extracts. The DNA protection efficiency of extracts against oxidative damage was confirmed by DNA nicking assay using bacterial DNA. The methanol extract effectively inhibited the growth and induces the apoptosis through ROS generation and sensitizes the mitochondrial membrane potential of A549 lung cancer cells. Taken together, the results showed that the solvent extracts of R. apiculata could be potential antioxidant and anticancer agents.

Keywords

Rhizophora apiculata Flavonoids Antioxidant activity DNA nicking assay Anticancer activity 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We acknowledge the Science and Engineering Research Board, Department of Science and Technology, Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of India for funds in carrying out this work (Ref. no. SR/FT/LS-050/2009 Dated July 23, 2010). We would like to thank Professor S. Dhanuskodi, Head, Department of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli–24, India for providing facility to FTIR analysis of our sample.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest to disclose.

References

  1. Ak T, Gulcin I (2008) Antioxidant and radical scavenging properties of curcumin. Chem Biol Interact 174:27–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aleksic V, Knezevic P (2014) Antimicrobial and antioxidative activity of extracts and essential oils of Myrtus communis L. Microbiol Res 169(4):240–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andrews JM (2001) Determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations. J Antimicrob Chemother 48(1):5–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Apostolou A, Stagos D, Galitsiou E, Spyrou A, Haroutounian S, Portesis N, Trizoglou I, Wallace Hayes A, Tsatsakis AM, Kouretas D (2013) Assessment of polyphenolic content, antioxidant activity, protection against ROS-induced DNA damage and anticancer activity of Vitis vinifera stem extracts. Food Chem Toxicol 61:60–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Asha KK, Suseela M, Lakshmanan PT (2012) Flavonoids and phenolic compounds in two mangrove species and their antioxidant property. Indian J Mar Sci 41(3):259–264Google Scholar
  6. Benedetti S, Catalani S, Palma F, Canestrari F (2011) The antioxidant protection of CELLFOOD® against oxidative damage in vitro. Food Chem Toxicol 49:2292–2298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. da Silva LCN, Silva-Junior CA, Souza RM, Macedo AJ, Silva MV, Correia MTS (2011) Comparative analysis of the antioxidant and DNA protection capacities of Anadenanthera colubrina, Libidibia ferrea and Pityrocarpa moniliformis fruits. Food Chem Toxicol 49:2222–2228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Droge W (2002) Free radicals in the physiological control of cell function. Physiol Rev 282:47–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Farjana A, Zerin N, Kabir MS (2014) Antimicrobial activity of medicinal plant leaf extracts against pathogenic bacteria. Asian Pac J Trop Dis 4(2):S920–S923CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gao M, Xiao H (2012) Activity-guided isolation of antioxidant compounds from Rhizophora apiculata. Molecules 17:10675–10682CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gulcin I, Oktay M, Kirecci E, Kufrevioglu OI (2003) Screening of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) seed extracts. Food Chem 83:371–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gurudeeban S, Satyavani K, Ramanathan T (2015) Identification of medicinal mangrove Rhizophora apiculata Blume: morphological, chemical and DNA barcoding methods. Int J Sci Eng Res 6(2):1283–1290Google Scholar
  13. Hong LS, Ibrahim D, Kassim J (2011) Assessment of in vivo and in vitro cytotoxic activity of hydrolysable tannin extracted from Rhizophora apiculata barks. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 27:2737–2740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jayaprakasha GK, Singh RP, Sakariah KK (2001) Antioxidant activity of grape seed (Vitis vinifera) extracts on peroxidation models in vitro. Food Chem 73:285–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kaur R, Arora S, Singh B (2008) Antioxidant activity of the phenol rich fractions of leaves of Chukrasia tabularis A. Juss. Bioresour Technol 99:7692–7698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Khan RA, Khan MR, Sahreen S, Ahmed M (2012) Evaluation of phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of various solvent extracts of Sonchus asper (L.) Hill. Chem Cent J 6:1–7Google Scholar
  17. Kusuma S, Anilkumar P, Kamala B (2011) Potent antimicrobial activity of Rhizophora mucronata. J Ecobiotechnol 3(11):40–41Google Scholar
  18. Li DL, Li XM, Peng ZY, Wang BG (2007) Flavanol derivatives from Rhizophora stylosa and their dpph radical scavenging activity. Molecules 12:1163–1169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lim SH, Darah I, Jain K (2006) Antimicrobial activities of tannins extracted from Rhizophora apiculata barks. J Trop For Sci 18(1):59–65Google Scholar
  20. Liochev SI (2013) Reactive oxygen species and the free radical theory of aging. Free Radic Biol Med 60:1–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Loo AY, Jain K, Darah I (2007) Antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of the pyroligneous acid from a mangrove plant, Rhizophora apiculata. Food Chem 104:300–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Loo AY, Jain K, Darah I (2008) Antioxidant activity of compounds isolated from the pyroligneous acid, Rhizophora apiculata. Food Chem 107:1151–1160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Meghashri S, Vijay Kumar H, Gopal S (2010) Antioxidant properties of a novel flavonoid from leaves of Leucas aspera. Food Chem 122:105–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Minussi RC, Rossi M, Bologna L, Cordi L, Rotilio D, Pastore GM, Duran N (2003) Phenolic compounds and total antioxidant potential of commercial wines. Food Chem 82:409–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mukesh P, Jadhav RN, Jadhav BL (2012a) Evaluation of antimicrobial principles of Rhizophora species along Mumbai coast. J Adv Sci Res 3(3):30–33Google Scholar
  26. Mukesh P, Pramod S, Vijay S, Vaishali J, Jadhav BL (2012b) Comparative performance of activity of antimicrobial principles of mangroves Rhizophora species along Mumbai coast. Indo Glob Res J Pharm Sci 2(4):42–429Google Scholar
  27. Nimse SB, Pal D (2015) Free radicals, natural antioxidants, and their reaction mechanisms. RSC Adv 5:27986–28006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ningappa MB, Dinesha R, Srinivas L (2008) Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of polyphenol-enriched curry leaf (Murraya koenigii L.) extracts. Food Chem 106:720–728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Nithiyanantham S, Siddhuraju P, Francis G (2013) A promising approach to enhance the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of raw and processed Jatropha curcas L. kernel meal extracts. Ind Crops Prod 43:261–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Oo CW, Kassima MJ, Pizzi A (2009) Characterization and performance of Rhizophora apiculata mangrove polyflavonoid tannins in the adsorption of copper (II) and lead (II). Ind Crops Prod 30:152–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Premanathan M, Arakaki R, Izumi H, Kathiresan K, Nakano M, Yamamoto N, Nakashima H (1999) Antiviral properties of a mangrove plant, Rhizophora apiculata Blume, against human immunodeficiency virus. Antivir Res 44:113–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rahim AA (2005) Physico-chemical characterization of mangrove tannins as corrosion inhibitors. Ph.D. Thesis, Universiti Sains MalaysiaGoogle Scholar
  33. Rahim AA, Rocca E, Steinmetz J, Kassim MJ, Ibrahim MS, Osman H (2008) Antioxidant activities of mangrove Rhizophora apiculata bark extracts. Food Chem 107:200–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ramalingam V, Rajaram R, Premkumar C, Santhanam C, Dhinesh P, Vinothkumar S, Kaleshkumar K (2014) Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles from deep sea bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa JQ989348 for antimicrobial, antibiofilm and cytotoxic activity. J Basic Microbiol 54(9):928–936CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ramalingam V, Varunkumar K, Ravikumar V, Rajaram R (2016) Development of glycolipid biosurfactant for inducing apoptosis in HeLa cells. RSC Adv 6:64087–64096CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ramalingam V, Revathidevi S, Shanmuganayagam T, Muthulakshmi L, Rajaram R (2017) Gold nanoparticle induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in nonsmall cell lung cancer cells. Gold Bull 50(2):177–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rathee JS, Hassarajani SA, Chattopadhyay S (2007) Antioxidant activity of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis leaf extract. Food Chem 103:1350–1357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Roopashree TS, Dang R, Rani RHS, Narendra C (2008) Antibacterial activity of antipsoriatic herb: Cassia tora, Momordica charantia and Calendula officinalis. Int J Appl Res Nat Prod 1(3):20–28Google Scholar
  39. Sakanaka S, Tachibana Y, Okada Y (2005) Preparation and antioxidant properties of extracts of Japanese persimmon leaf tea (kakinoha-cha). Food Chem 89:569–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sheline CT, Wei L (2006) Free radical-mediated neurotoxicity may be caused by inhibition of mitochondrial dehydrogenases in vitro and in vivo. Neuroscience 140:235–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Suraya S, Darah I, Jain K, Lim SH (2011) Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of condensed tannin from Rhizophora apiculata barks. J Chem Pharm Res 3(4):436–444Google Scholar
  42. Vaikundamoorthy R, Sundaramoorthy R, Krishnamoorthy V, Vilwanathan R, Rajendran R (2016) Marine steroid derived from Acropora formosa enhances mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer cells. Tumour Biol 37(8):10517–10531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Valentao P, Fernandes E, Carvalho F, Andrade PB, Seabra RM, Bastos ML (2002) Antioxidative properties of cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) infusion against superoxide radical hydroxyl radical, and hypochlorous acid. J Agric Food Chem 50:4989–4993CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Verma AR, Vijayakumar M, Mathela CS, Rao CV (2009) In vitro and in vivo antioxidant properties of different fractions of Moringa oleifera leaves. Food Chem Toxicol 47:2196–2201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Vinod Prabhu V, Guruvayoorappan C (2012a) Anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activity of the marine mangrove Rhizophora apiculata. J Immunotoxicol 9(4):341–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Vinod Prabhu V, Guruvayoorappan C (2012b) Evaluation of immunostimulant activity and chemoprotective effect of mangrove Rhizophora apiculata against cyclophosphamide induced toxicity in BALB/c mice. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 34(4):608–615CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.DNA Barcoding and Marine Genomics Lab, Department of Marine ScienceBharathidasan UniversityTiruchirappalliIndia

Personalised recommendations