3 Biotech

, 8:182 | Cite as

An alkaline bacterial laccase for polymerization of natural precursors for hair dye synthesis

  • Deepak Kumar
  • Aditya Kumar
  • Sonica Sondhi
  • Prince Sharma
  • Naveen Gupta
Original Article


In the present study, an extracellular alkali stable laccase (Lac DS) from Bacillus subtilis DS which has pH optima at 8.5 using p-phenylenediamine (PPD) as substrate has been reported. Lac DS retained 70% activity for 4 h at pH 8.5 and 90% activity for 24 h at 55 °C. The enzyme yield was enhanced by optimization of fermentation conditions. A 746-fold increase in yield was observed under optimized conditions using 150 µM MgSO4, 1.2% yeast extract, 0.35% tryptone, and 150 µM vanillic acid. Lac DS was used to polymerize natural dye precursor catechol, pyrogallol, syringaldehyde, syringic acid, ferulic acid and gallic acid to develop a range of natural hair colors such as black, golden yellow, and reddish brown. The results indicate that alkaline Lac DS is a suitable candidate to develop a user-friendly and commercially applicable hair dyeing process in the area of cosmetic industry.


Laccase Hair dye Synthesis Polymerization PPD Natural precursors 



This work was supported by University Grant Commission (UGC)-BSR F.25-1/2013-14(BSR)/7-261/2011 (BSR) Government of India, New Delhi, India.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest

Human and animal rights and informed consent

Research involving Human Participants and/or Animals/Informed consent: not applicable for the study.

Supplementary material

13205_2018_1181_MOESM1_ESM.docx (19 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 18 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Deepak Kumar
    • 1
  • Aditya Kumar
    • 1
  • Sonica Sondhi
    • 1
  • Prince Sharma
    • 1
  • Naveen Gupta
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Microbiology, BMS Block 1, South CampusPanjab UniversityChandigarhIndia

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