3 Biotech

, 8:147 | Cite as

Complete Genome Sequence of Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus Strain Kurdistan, Iran

  • Hamid Reza Maghamnia
  • Mohammad Hajizadeh
  • Abdolbaset Azizi
Short Reports


The complete genome sequence of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus strain Kurdistan (ZYMV-Kurdistan) infecting squash from Iran was determined from 13 overlapping fragments. Excluding the poly (A) tail, ZYMV-Kurdistan genome consisted of 9593 nucleotides (nt), with 138 and 211 nt at the 5′ and 3′ non-translated regions, respectively. It contained two open-reading frames (ORFs), the large ORF encoding a polyprotein of 3080 amino acids (aa) and the small overlapping ORF encoding a P3N-PIPO protein of 74 aa. This isolate had six unique aa differences compared to other ZYMV isolates and shared 79.6–98.8% identities with other ZYMV genome sequences at the nt level and 90.1–99% identities at the aa level. A phylogenetic tree of ZYMV complete genomic sequences showed that Iranian and Central European isolates are closely related and form a phylogenetically homogenous group. All values in the ratio of substitution rates at non-synonymous and synonymous sites (dN/dS) were below 1, suggestive of strong negative selection forces during ZYMV protein history. This is the first report of complete genome sequence information of the most prevalent virus in the west of Iran. This study helps our understanding of the genetic diversity of ZYMV isolates infecting cucurbit plants in Iran, virus evolution and epidemiology and can assist in designing better diagnostic tools.


Genetic diversity Negative selection Overlapping fragments Phylogenetic analysis ZYMV 



We thank Dr. Nemat Sokhandan Bashir for critical review of the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

13205_2018_1177_MOESM1_ESM.docx (17 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 16 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hamid Reza Maghamnia
    • 1
  • Mohammad Hajizadeh
    • 1
  • Abdolbaset Azizi
    • 1
  1. 1.Plant Protection Department, Faculty of AgricultureUniversity of KurdistanSanandajIran

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