Advertisement

3 Biotech

, 8:143 | Cite as

Genetic diversity in the candidate trees of Madhuca indica J. F. Gmel. (Mahua) revealed by inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs)

  • S. D. Nimbalkar
  • S. S. Jade
  • V. K. Kauthale
  • S. Agale
  • R. A. Bahulikar
Original Article
  • 23 Downloads

Abstract

Madhuca indica provides livelihood to several tribal people in India, where the flowers are used for extraction of sweet juices having multiple applications. Certain trees have more value as judged by the tribal people mainly based on yield and quality performance of the trees, and these trees were selected for the genetic diversity analyses. Genetic diversity of 48 candidate Mahua trees from Etapalli, Dadagaon, and Jawhar, Maharashtra, India, was assessed using ISSR markers. Fourteen ISSR primers revealed a total of 132 polymorphic bands giving overall 92% polymorphism. Genetic diversity, in terms of expected number of alleles (Ne), the observed number of alleles (Na), Nei’s genetic diversity (H), and Shannon’s information index (I) was 1.921, 1.333, 0.211, and 0.337, respectively, and suggested lower genetic diversity. Region wise analysis revealed higher genetic diversity for site Etapalli (H = 0.206) and lowest at Dhadgaon (H = 0.140). Etapalli area possesses higher forest cover than Dhadgaon and Jawhar. Additionally, in Dhadgaon and Jawhar M. indica trees are restricted to field bunds; both reasons might contribute to lower genetic diversity in these regions. The dendrogram and the principal coordinate analyses showed no region-specific clustering. The clustering patterns were supported by AMOVA where higher genetic variance was observed within trees and lower variance among regions. Long-distance dispersal and/or higher human interference might be responsible for low diversity and higher genetic variance within the candidate trees.

Keywords

Genetic diversity ISSR markers People’s perception Human interference 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank Lilesh Chavan, Nana Pawara and Giri Gurudas from BISLD, Nasik, India, for their field support. Authors also thank Dr. Monali Rahalkar (Agharkar Research Institute, Pune) for critical reading suggestions for improvement of the manuscript.

Author contributions

SDN, VKK, and SA gave technical guidance and were involved in documentation, identification, and collection of plant samples. SSJ and RAB executed the laboratory experiments and RAB interpreted and wrote the draft manuscript. All the authors scrutinized and reviewed the manuscript, and approved the final version.

Funding

Received funding for Maharashtra Gene Bank project from Rajiv Gandhi Science and Technology Commission, Mumbai and IISER Pune, India.

Compliance with ethical standards

In present work, human participation was limited to identification of plants by local tribal people and, therefore, formal consent was not required.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interests.

Supplementary material

13205_2018_1168_MOESM1_ESM.docx (18 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 18 kb)
13205_2018_1168_MOESM2_ESM.jpg (132 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (JPEG 132 kb) Fig. 1 Map of Maharashtra, India showing sampling locations of candidate trees of Madhuca indica

References

  1. Aabd NA, Msanda F, Mousadik AE (2015) Genetic diversity of the endangered argan tree (Argania spinosa L.) (sapotaceae) revealed by ISSR analysis. Basic Res J Agri Sci Rev 4:176–186Google Scholar
  2. Apte GS, Bahulikar RA, Kulkarni RS, Lagu MD, Kulkarni BG, Suresh HS, Rao PSN, Gupta VS (2006) Genetic diversity analysis in Gaultheria fragrantissima Wall. (Ericaceae) from the two biodiversity hotspots in India using ISSR markers. Curr Sci 91(12):1634–1640Google Scholar
  3. Austerlitz F, Mariette S, Machon N, Gouyon P-H, Godelle B (2000) Effects of colonization processes on genetic diversity: differences between annual plants and tree species. Genetics 154(3):1309–1321Google Scholar
  4. Bachmann K (1994) Molecular markers in plant ecology. New Phytol 126(3):403–418.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.1994.tb04242.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bahulikar RA, Lagu MD, Kulkarni BG, Pandit SS, Suresh HS, Rao MKV, Ranjekar PK, Gupta VS (2004a) Genetic diversity among spatially isolated populations of Eurya nitida Korth. (Theaceae) based on inter-simple sequence repeats. Curr Sci 86(6):824–831Google Scholar
  6. Bahulikar RA, Stanculescu D, Preston CA, Baldwin IT (2004b) ISSR and AFLP analysis of the temporal and spatial population structure of the post-fire annual, Nicotiana attenuata, in SW Utah. BMC Ecol 4:12.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6785-4-12 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chaudhary A, Bhandari A, Pandurangan A, Koul S (2015) Madhuca indica J. F. Gmel. (Sapotaceae): an overview. Int J Pharma Sci Let 5(2):539–545Google Scholar
  8. Chen L, Chen F, He S, Ma L (2014) High genetic diversity and small genetic variation among populations of Magnolia wufengensis (Magnoliaceae), revealed by ISSR and SRAP markers Electron. J Biotechnol 17(6):268–274.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejbt.2014.08.003 Google Scholar
  9. Dai Z-C, Si C-C, Zhai D-L, Huang P, Qi S-S, Zhong Q-X, Hu X, Li H-M, Du D-L (2013) Human impacts on genetic diversity and differentiation in six natural populations of Madhuca hainanensis, an endemic and endangered timber species in China. Biochem Syst Ecol 50:212–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Deshpande AU, Apte GS, Bahulikar RA, Lagu MD, Kulkarni BG, Suresh HS, Singh NP, Rao MKV, Gupta VS, Pant A, Ranjekar PK (2001) Genetic diversity across natural populations of three montane plant species from the Western Ghats, India revealed by intersimple sequence repeats. Mol Ecol 10(10):2397–2408.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.0962-1083.2001.01379.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gavankar R, Chemburkar M (2016) Genetic analysis of Madhuca longifolia (J. Koenig ex L.) JF Macbr. using RAPD markers. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci 5(8):608–615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ghadge SV, Raheman H (2005) Biodiesel production from mahua (Madhuca indica) oil having high free fatty acids. Biomass Bioenergy 28(6):601–605.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2004.11.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gienapp P, Teplitsky C, Alho J, Mills J, Merilä J (2008) Climate change and evolution: disentangling environmental and genetic responses. Mol Ecol 17(1):167–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hammer Ø, Harper DAT, Ryan PD (2001) Past: paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontol Electronica 4(1):4–9Google Scholar
  15. Heslop-Harrison J (1975) Incompatibility and the pollen-stigma interaction. Ann Rev Plant Physiol 26(1):403–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Holsinger KE, Weir BS (2009) Genetics in geographically structured populations: defining, estimating and interpreting F(ST). Nat Rev Genet 10(9):639–650.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nrg2611 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Idris AE, Hamza NB, Yagoub SO, Ibrahim AIA, El-Amin HKA (2012) Maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes diversity study by utilization of Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) markers. Aust J Basic Appl Sci 6(10):42–47Google Scholar
  18. Joshi SP, Ranjekar PK, Gupta VS (1999) Molecular markers in plant genome analysis. Curr Sci 77(2):230–241Google Scholar
  19. Kulkarni PS, Sharanappa G, Ramesh MR (2013) Mahua (Madhuca indica) as a source of biodiesel in India. Int J Eng Res Appl 4(7):2319–2329Google Scholar
  20. Morikawa M, Muto T, Santos-Guerrra A, Kondo K (2014) Identifying, discriminating and isolating cultivars of ‘Marguerites’ originated from Argyranthemum frutescens parentages and their intergeneric and interspecific hybridities by DNA markers amplified by RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) and ISSR (inter-simple sequence repeat). Chromosome Bot 9:97–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mukherjee AK, Ratha S, Dhar S, Debata AK, Acharya PK, Mandal S, Panda PC, Mahapatra AK (2010) Genetic relationships among 22 taxa of bamboo revealed by ISSR and EST-based random primers. Biochem Genet 48(11–12):1015–1025.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10528-010-9390-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Murray MG, Thompson WF (1980) Rapid isolation of high molecular weight plant DNA. Nucleic Acids Res 8(19):4321–4325.  https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/8.19.4321 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Nagaraju J, Kathirvel M, Kumar RR, Siddiq EA, Hasnain SE (2002) Genetic analysis of traditional and evolved Basmati and non-Basmati rice varieties by using fluorescence-based ISSR-PCR and SSR markers. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99(9):5836–5841.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.042099099 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Naik D, Singh D, Vartak V, Paranjpe S, Bhargava S (2009) Assessment of morphological and genetic diversity in Gmelina arborea Roxb. New Forest 38(1):99–115.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11056-009-9134-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Nybom H (2004) Comparison of different nuclear DNA markers for estimating intraspecific genetic diversity in plants. Mol Ecol 13(5):1143–1155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Nybom H, Bartish IV (2000) Effects of life history traits and sampling strategies on genetic diversity estimates obtained with RAPD markers in plants. Perspect Plant Ecol Evol Syst 3(2):93–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Nybom H, Weising K, Rotter B (2014) DNA fingerprinting in botany: past, present, future. Investig Genet 5:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Palme AE, Semerikov V, Lascoux M (2003) Absence of geographical structure of chloroplast DNA variation in sallow. Salix caprea L. Heredity (Edinb) 91(5):465–474.  https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.hdy.6800307 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Patel M, Naik SN (2010) Flowers of Madhuca indica, present status and future prospective. Indian J Nat Prod Resour 1(4):438–443Google Scholar
  30. Patel PK, Prajapati NK, Dubey BK (2012) Madhuca indica: a review of its medicinal property. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 3(5):1285–1293Google Scholar
  31. Peakall R, Smouse PE (2006) GENALEX 6: genetic analysis in excel. Population genetic software for teaching and research. Mol Ecol Notes 6(1):288–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Peakall R, Smouse PE (2012) GenAlEx 65: genetic analysis in Excel. Population genetic software for teaching and research—an update. Bioinformatics 28(19):2537–2539.  https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/bts460 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sarwat M, Das S, Srivastava PS (2011) Estimation of genetic diversity and evaluation of relatedness through molecular markers among medicinally important trees: terminalia arjuna, T. chebula and T. bellerica. Mol Biol Rep 38(8):5025–5036CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Tamura K, Stecher G, Peterson D, Filipski A, Kumar S (2013) MEGA6: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 6.0. Molecular Biol Evol 30(12):2725–2729.  https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/mst197 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wani MS, Wani A, Mughal A (2015) Estimation of divergence to genetic variation in half-sib families of Madhuca indica GMEL. Under greenhouse and open field environmental conditions. Indian J Agr Sci 141(1):35–40Google Scholar
  36. Yeh FC, Yang RC, Boyle T, Ye ZH, Mao JX (1999) POPGENE, version 1.32: the user friendly software for population genetic analysis. Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Centre, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, CanadaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. D. Nimbalkar
    • 1
  • S. S. Jade
    • 1
  • V. K. Kauthale
    • 1
  • S. Agale
    • 1
  • R. A. Bahulikar
    • 1
  1. 1.BAIF Development Research Foundation, Central Research StationPuneIndia

Personalised recommendations