3 Biotech

, 8:143 | Cite as

Genetic diversity in the candidate trees of Madhuca indica J. F. Gmel. (Mahua) revealed by inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs)

  • S. D. Nimbalkar
  • S. S. Jade
  • V. K. Kauthale
  • S. Agale
  • R. A. Bahulikar
Original Article


Madhuca indica provides livelihood to several tribal people in India, where the flowers are used for extraction of sweet juices having multiple applications. Certain trees have more value as judged by the tribal people mainly based on yield and quality performance of the trees, and these trees were selected for the genetic diversity analyses. Genetic diversity of 48 candidate Mahua trees from Etapalli, Dadagaon, and Jawhar, Maharashtra, India, was assessed using ISSR markers. Fourteen ISSR primers revealed a total of 132 polymorphic bands giving overall 92% polymorphism. Genetic diversity, in terms of expected number of alleles (Ne), the observed number of alleles (Na), Nei’s genetic diversity (H), and Shannon’s information index (I) was 1.921, 1.333, 0.211, and 0.337, respectively, and suggested lower genetic diversity. Region wise analysis revealed higher genetic diversity for site Etapalli (H = 0.206) and lowest at Dhadgaon (H = 0.140). Etapalli area possesses higher forest cover than Dhadgaon and Jawhar. Additionally, in Dhadgaon and Jawhar M. indica trees are restricted to field bunds; both reasons might contribute to lower genetic diversity in these regions. The dendrogram and the principal coordinate analyses showed no region-specific clustering. The clustering patterns were supported by AMOVA where higher genetic variance was observed within trees and lower variance among regions. Long-distance dispersal and/or higher human interference might be responsible for low diversity and higher genetic variance within the candidate trees.


Genetic diversity ISSR markers People’s perception Human interference 



We thank Lilesh Chavan, Nana Pawara and Giri Gurudas from BISLD, Nasik, India, for their field support. Authors also thank Dr. Monali Rahalkar (Agharkar Research Institute, Pune) for critical reading suggestions for improvement of the manuscript.

Author contributions

SDN, VKK, and SA gave technical guidance and were involved in documentation, identification, and collection of plant samples. SSJ and RAB executed the laboratory experiments and RAB interpreted and wrote the draft manuscript. All the authors scrutinized and reviewed the manuscript, and approved the final version.


Received funding for Maharashtra Gene Bank project from Rajiv Gandhi Science and Technology Commission, Mumbai and IISER Pune, India.

Compliance with ethical standards

In present work, human participation was limited to identification of plants by local tribal people and, therefore, formal consent was not required.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interests.

Supplementary material

13205_2018_1168_MOESM1_ESM.docx (18 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 18 kb)
13205_2018_1168_MOESM2_ESM.jpg (132 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (JPEG 132 kb) Fig. 1 Map of Maharashtra, India showing sampling locations of candidate trees of Madhuca indica


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. D. Nimbalkar
    • 1
  • S. S. Jade
    • 1
  • V. K. Kauthale
    • 1
  • S. Agale
    • 1
  • R. A. Bahulikar
    • 1
  1. 1.BAIF Development Research Foundation, Central Research StationPuneIndia

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