3 Biotech

, 8:142 | Cite as

Energy assessment of second generation (2G) ethanol production from wheat straw in Indian scenario

  • Archana Mishra
  • Akash Kumar
  • Sanjoy Ghosh
Original Article


Impact of second-generation ethanol (2G) use in transportation sector mainly depends upon energy efficiency of entire production process. The objective of present study was to determine energy efficiency of a potential lignocellulosic feedstock; wheat straw and its conversion into cellulosic ethanol in Indian scenario. Energy efficiency was determined by calculating Net energy ratio (NER), i.e. ratio of output energy obtained by ethanol and input energy used in ethanol production. Energy consumption and generation at each step is calculated briefly (11,837.35 MJ/ha during Indian dwarf irrigated variety of wheat crop production and 7.1148 MJ/kg straw during ethanol production stage). Total energy consumption is calculated as 8.2988 MJ/kg straw whereas energy generation from ethanol is 15.082 MJ/kg straw; resulting into NER > 1. Major portion of agricultural energy input is contributed by diesel and fertilisers whereas refining process of wheat straw feedstock to ethanol and by-products require mainly in the form of steam and electricity. On an average, 1671.8 kg water free ethanol, 930 kg lignin rich biomass (for combustion), and 561 kg C5-molasses (for fodder) per hectare are produced. Findings of this study, net energy ratio (1.81) and figure of merit (14.8028 MJ/nil kg carbon) proves wheat straw as highest energy efficient lignocellulosic feedstock for the country.


2G ethanol Agricultural residues Energy analysis Lignocellulosic feedstock Wheat straw 



The Authors gratefully acknowledge to DBT, India (Grant number: DBT-824-BIO) and MHRD, India for their fund & support provided to conduct this study.

Author contributions

All authors have seen and approved the manuscript and its contents and they are aware of the responsibilities connected to authorship. All listed authors have contributed significantly in the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare they have no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Biochemical Engineering Laboratory, Department of BiotechnologyIndian Institute of Technology RoorkeeRoorkeeIndia

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