Towards single crystalline, highly monodisperse and catalytically active gold nanoparticles capped with probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum derived lipase

  • Imran Khan
  • Ravikiran Nagarjuna
  • Jayati Ray Dutta
  • Ramakrishnan Ganesan
Original Article


Owing to the eco-friendly nature of biomolecules, there lies a huge interest in exploring them as capping agents for nanoparticles to achieve stability and biocompatibility. Lipase extracted from the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum is utilized for the first time to study its efficacy in capping gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in the room temperature synthesis using HAuCl4. The synthesized lipase-capped GNPs are characterized using UV–visible spectroscopy, FT-IR, HR-TEM, DLS and zeta potential measurements. Importantly, selected area electron diffraction (SAED) studies with HR-TEM have revealed the effect of lipase capping in tuning the polycrystallinity of the GNPs. The lipase-capped GNPs are explored for their catalytic efficiency towards an environmentally and industrially important conversion of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol. Exploiting the amine functional groups in the protein, the recoverability and reusability of the GNPs have been demonstrated through immobilization over amine-functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles.


Protein-capped gold nanoparticles Lactobacillus plantarum lipase Crystallinity of gold nanoparticles 4-Nitrophenol reduction Magnetic recoverability 



The authors would like to thank BITS, Pilani Hyderabad campus for their financial support. All technical staff in the Biological Sciences department and Central Analytical Laboratory of BITS, Hyderabad campus, are greatly acknowledged for their kind assistance.

Supplementary material

13204_2018_735_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.5 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 1515 kb)


  1. Al-Harbi MS et al (2014) Extracellular biosynthesis of AgNPs by the bacterium & its toxic effect on some aspects of animal physiology. Adv Nanopart 3:83–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anil Kumar S, Abyaneh MK, Gosavi SW, Kulkarni SK, Pasricha R, Ahmad A et al (2007) Nitrate reductase-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles from AgNO3. Biotechnol Lett 29:439–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Boudart M (1995) Turnover rates in heterogeneous catalysis. Chem Rev 95:661–666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chanana M, Correa-Duarte MA, Liz-Marzán LM (2011) Insulin-coated gold nanoparticles: a plasmonic device for studying metal-protein interactions. Small 7:2650–2660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Daniel M-C, Astruc D (2004) Gold nanoparticles: assembly, supramolecular chemistry, quantum-size-related properties, and applications toward biology, catalysis, and nanotechnology. Chem Rev 104:293–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dash SS, Bag BG (2014) Synthesis of gold nanoparticles using renewable Punica granatum juice and study of its catalytic activity. Appl Nanosci 4:55–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Devika Chithrani B, Ghazani Arezou A, Chan Warren C W (2006) Determining the size and shape dependence of gold nanoparticle uptake into mammalian cells. Nano Lett 6:662–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dewi MR, Laufersky G, Nann T (2015) Selective assembly of Au-Fe3O4 nanoparticle hetero-dimers. Mikrochim Acta 182:2293–2298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Duan H, Wang D, Li Y (2015) Green chemistry for nanoparticle synthesis. Chem Soc Rev 44:5778–5792CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Goswami N, Saha R, Pal SK (2011) Protein-assisted synthesis route of metal nanoparticles: exploration of key chemistry of the biomolecule. J Nanoparticle Res 13:5485–5495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jain N, Bhargava A, Panwar J (2014) Enhanced photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue using biologically synthesized “protein-capped” ZnO nanoparticles. Chem Eng J 243:549–555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jordan BJ, Hong R, Han G, Rana S, Rotello VM (2009) Modulation of enzyme–substrate selectivity using tetraethylene glycol functionalized gold nanoparticles. Nanotechnology. 20:434004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Joseph D, Tyagi N, Geckeler C, Geckeler K.E (2014) Protein-coated pH-responsive gold nanoparticles: microwave-assisted synthesis and surface charge-dependent anticancer activity. Beilstein J Nanotechnol 1452–1462Google Scholar
  14. Khan SA, Ahmad A (2014) Enzyme mediated synthesis of water-dispersible, naturally protein capped, monodispersed gold nanoparticles; their characterization and mechanistic aspects. RSC Adv 4:7729–7734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Khan I, Dutta JR, Ganesan R (2016) Enzymes’ action on materials: recent trends. J Cell Biotechnol 1:131–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Khan I, Dutta JR, Ganesan R (2017) Lactobacillus sps. lipase mediated poly (ε-caprolactone) degradation. Int J Biol Macromol 95:126–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kimling J, Maier M, Okenve B, Kotaidis V, Ballot H, Plech A (2006) Turkevich method for gold nanoparticle synthesis revisited. J Phys Chem B 110:15700–15707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kumar J, Mallampati R, Adin A, Valiyaveettil S (2014) Functionalized carbon spheres for extraction of nanoparticles and catalyst support in water. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 2:2675–2682CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kuroda K, Ishida T, Haruta M (2009) Reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol over Au nanoparticles deposited on PMMA. J Mol Catal A Chem 298:7–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mazumder JA, Ahmad R, Sardar M (2016) Reusable magnetic nanobiocatalyst for synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles. Int J Biol Macromol 93:66–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mendes PM (2013) Cellular nanotechnology: making biological interfaces smarter. Chem Soc Rev 42:9207–9218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Murawala P, Tirmale A, Shiras A, Prasad BLV (2014) In situ synthesized BSA capped gold nanoparticles: effective carrier of anticancer drug methotrexate to MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Mater Sci Eng C 34:158–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Park E, Quinn MR, Schuller-Levis G (2000) Taurine chloramine attenuates the hydrolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in LPS-activated murine peritoneal macrophages. Adv Exp Med Biol 483:389–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Park H-Y, Schadt MJ, Wang L, Lim I-IS, Njoki PN, Kim SH et al (2007) Fabrication of magnetic core@Shell Fe Oxide@Au nanoparticles for interfacial bioactivity and bio-separation. Langmuir 23:9050–9056CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Politi J, Spadavecchia J, Fiorentino G, Antonucci I, Casale S, De Stefano L (2015) Interaction of Thermus thermophilus ArsC enzyme and gold nanoparticles naked-eye assays speciation between As(III) and As(V). Nanotechnology. 26:435703CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ramyasree S, Dutta JR (2013) The effect of process parameters in enhancement of lipase production by co-culture of lactic acid bacteria and their mutagenesis study. Biocatal Agric Biotechnol 4:393–398Google Scholar
  27. Rangnekar A et al (2007) Retention of enzymatic activity of alpha-amylase in the reductive synthesis of gold nanoparticles. Langmuir 23:5700–5706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Rastogi L, Kora AJ (2012) Highly stable, protein capped gold nanoparticles as effective drug delivery vehicles for amino-glycosidic antibiotics. Mater Sci Eng C 32:1571–1577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sanghi R, Verma P, Puri S (2011) Enzymatic formation of gold nanoparticles using phanerochaete chrysosporium. Adv Chem Eng Sci 1:154–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Seo YS, Ahn EY, Park J, Kim TY, Hong JE, Kim K et al (2017) Catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol with gold nanoparticles synthesized by caffeic acid. Nanoscale Res Lett 12:7–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Singh M, Kalaivani R, Manikandan S, Sangeetha N, Kumaraguru AK (2013) Facile green synthesis of variable metallic gold nanoparticle using Padina gymnospora, a brown marine macroalga. Appl Nanosci 3:145–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Uppada SR, Akula M, Bhattacharya A, Dutta JR (2017) Immobilized lipase from Lactobacillus plantarum in meat degradation and synthesis of flavor esters. J Genet Eng Biotechnol 15:331–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Virkutyte J, Varma RS, Kumar V, Yadav SK, Dahl JA, Maddux BLS et al (2011) Green synthesis of metal nanoparticles: biodegradable polymers and enzymes in stabilization and surface functionalization. Chem Sci 2:837–846CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wang ZH, Jin G (2004) Covalent immobilization of proteins for the biosensor based on imaging ellipsometry. J Immunol Methods 285:237–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Yan Y, Warren SC, Fuller P, Grzybowski BA (2016) Chemoelectronic circuits based on metal nanoparticles. Nat Nanotechnol 11:603–608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Yang Tao, Li Zhuang, Wang Li, Guo Cunlan, Sun Y (2007) Synthesis. Characterization, and self-assembly of protein lysozyme monolayer-stabilized gold nanoparticles, langmuir 23:10533–10538Google Scholar
  37. Yeh YC, Creran B, Rotello VM (2012) Gold nanoparticles: preparation, properties, and applications in bionanotechnology. Nanoscale. 4:1871–1880CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Yu Y, New SY, Xie J, Su X, Tan YN, Lu Y et al (2014) Protein-based fluorescent metal nanoclusters for small molecular drug screening. Chem Commun 50:13805–13808CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Zhang Q, Xie J, Yu Y, Yang J, Lee JY (2010) Tuning the crystallinity of Au nanoparticles. Small 6:523–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Zhichuan Xu, Hou Yanglong, Sun S (2007) Magnetic core/shell Fe3O4/Au and Fe3O4/Au/Ag nanoparticles with tunable plasmonic properties. J Am Chem Soc 129:8698–8699CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesBITS Pilani, Hyderabad CampusHyderabadIndia
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryBITS Pilani, Hyderabad CampusHyderabadIndia

Personalised recommendations