Effects of thermal and non-thermal processing of cruciferous vegetables on glucosinolates and its derived forms
Brassica vegetables, which include broccoli, kale, cauliflower, and Brussel sprouts, are known for their high glucosinolate content. Glucosinolates and their derived forms namely isothiocyanates are of special interest in the pharmaceutical and food industries due to their antimicrobial, neuroprotective, and anticarcinogenic properties. These compounds are water soluble and heat-sensitive and have been proved to be heavily lost during thermal processing. In addition, previous studies suggested that novel non-thermal technologies such as high pressure processing, pulsed electric fields, or ultraviolet irradiation can affect the glucosinolate content of cruciferous vegetables. The objective of this paper was to review current knowledge about the effects of both thermal and non-thermal processing technologies on the content of glucosinolates and their derived forms in brassica vegetables. This paper also highlights the importance of the incorporation of brassica vegetables into our diet for their health-promoting properties beyond their anticarcinogenic activities.
KeywordsGlucosinolates Crucifers Thermal processing Novel technologies Non-thermal processing Brassica
High pressure processing
Intense pulsed light
Pulsed electric field
This work was supported by the CERCA Programme and the Secretaria d’Universitats i Recerca del Departament d’Economia i Coneixement de la Generalitat de Catalunya (FI-DGR-2015-0004). T. Lafarga is in receipt of a Juan de la Cierva contract awarded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy, Industry, and Competitiveness (FJCI-2016-29541). I. Aguiló-Aguayo thanks the National Programme for the Promotion of Talent and its Employability of the Spanish Ministry of Economy, Industry and Competitiveness and to the European Social Fund for the Postdoctoral Senior Grant Ramon y Cajal (RYC-2016-19949).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
- Bakker MF, Peeters PH, Klaasen VM, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Jansen EH, Ros MM, Travier N, Olsen A, Tjønneland A, Overvad K (2016) Plasma carotenoids, vitamin C, tocopherols, and retinol and the risk of breast cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Am J Clin Nutr 103:454–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Blok Frandsen H, Ejdrup Markedal K, Martín-Belloso O, Sánchez-Vega R, Soliva-Fortuny R, Sørensen H, Sørensen S, Sørensen JC (2014) Effects of novel processing techniques on glucosinolates and membrane associated myrosinases in broccoli. Pol J Food Nutr Sci 64:17–25Google Scholar
- Conde-Rioll M, Gajate C, Fernández JJ, Villa-Pulgarin JA, Napolitano JG, Norte M, Mollinedo F (2017) Antitumor activity of Lepidium latifolium and identification of the epithionitrile 1-cyano-2, 3-epithiopropane as its major active component. Mol Carcinogen 57:1–14Google Scholar
- Deng Q, Zinoviadou KG, Galanakis CM, Orlien V, Grimi N, Vorobiev E, Lebovka N, Barba FJ (2015) The effects of conventional and non-conventional processing on glucosinolates and its derived forms, isothiocyanates: extraction, degradation, and applications. Food Eng Rev 7:357–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- FAOSTAT (2017) The Food and Agriculture Organization Corporate Statistical Database. http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#home
- Florkiewicz A, Ciska E, Filipiak-Florkiewicz A, Topolska K (2017) Comparison of sous-vide methods and traditional hydrothermal treatment on GLS content in Brassica vegetables. Eur Food Res Technol 9:1–11Google Scholar
- Hinds L, Kenny O, Hossain M, Walsh D, Sheehy E, Evans P, Gaffney M, Rai D (2017) Evaluating the antibacterial properties of polyacetylene and glucosinolate compounds with further identification of their presence within various carrot (Daucus carota) and Broccoli (Brassica oleracea) cultivars using high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector and ultra performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry analyses. J Agric Food Chem 65:7186–7191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Neugart S, Fiol M, Schreiner M, Rohn S, Zrenner R, Kroh LW, Krumbein A (2014) Interaction of moderate UV-B exposure and temperature on the formation of structurally different flavonol glycosides and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives in kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica). J Agric Food Chem 62:4054–4062CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Odriozola-Serrano I, Soliva-Fortuny R, Martín-Belloso O (2016) Pulsed electric fields effects on health-related compounds and antioxidant capacity of tomato juice. In: Miklavcic D (ed) Handbook of electroporation. Springer, Cham, pp 1–14Google Scholar
- Puértolas E, Saldaña G, Raso J (2016) Pulsed electric field treatment for fruit and vegetable processing. In: Miklavcic D (ed) Handbook of electroporation. Springer, Cham, pp 1–21Google Scholar