Diabetes disproportionately affects American Indians/Alaskan Natives (AI/AN). Bisphenol A (BPA) and arsenic (As), environmental toxicants which may be associated with diabetes, have not been well studied in this population. Our objectives were to determine if urinary BPA and As are associated with diabetes among adults in the Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe (CRST), and to compare their urinary levels with the general US population.
We performed a case-control study among 276 volunteers. We matched our cases (persons with diabetes) and controls (persons without diabetes) using age. We collected questionnaire data and urine samples which were tested for BPA and speciated As analytes. We used paired t tests and McNemar’s chi-square test to compare continuous and categorical variables, respectively, between cases and controls and linear regression to assess the association between self-reported exposures and BPA and As levels. We used conditional logistic regression to investigate the association between case status and BPA and As levels. BPA and As levels among participants were compared with those from the 2011–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).
The average age of participants was 46 years. The majority identified as AI/AN race (97%) and 58% were female. The geometric means from CRST participant urine specimens were 1.83 ug/L for BPA and 3.89 ug/L for total As. BPA geometric means of CRST participants were higher than NHANES participants while total As geometric means were lower. BPA and As were not associated with case status.
The results of this study are consistent with others that have reported no association between diabetes and exposure to BPA or As.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Ahmad F, Rossen L, Spencer M, Warner M, Sutton P. Provisional drug overdose death counts. National Center for Health Statistics; 2018.
Kuo CC, Howard BV, Umans JG, Gribble MO, Best LG, Francesconi KA, et al. Arsenic exposure, arsenic metabolism, and incident diabetes in the strong heart study. Diabetes Care. 2015;38(4):620–7.
Grau-Perez M, Kuo C-C, Gribble MO, Balakrishnan P, Spratlen MJ, Vaidya D, et al. Association of low-moderate arsenic exposure and arsenic metabolism with incident diabetes and insulin resistance in the Strong Heart Family Study. Environ Health Perspect. 2017;125(12).
Lang IA, Galloway TS, Scarlett A, Henley WE, Depledge M, Wallace RB, et al. Association of urinary bisphenol A concentration with medical disorders and laboratory abnormalities in adults. JAMA. 2008;300(11):1303–10.
Navas-Acien A, Silbergeld EK, Pastor-Barriuso R, Guallar E. Arsenic exposure and prevalence of type 2 diabetes in US adults. JAMA. 2008;300(7):814–22.
Seachrist DD, Bonk KW, Ho S-M, Prins GS, Soto AM, Keri RA. A review of the carcinogenic potential of bisphenol A. Reprod Toxicol. 2016;59:167–82.
Boyer EW. Management of opioid analgesic overdose. N Engl J Med. 2012;367(2):146–55.
Sun Q, Cornelis MC, Townsend MK, Tobias DK, Eliassen AH, Franke AA, et al. Association of urinary concentrations of bisphenol A and phthalate metabolites with risk of type 2 diabetes: a prospective investigation in the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) and NHSII cohorts. Environ Health Perspect. 2014;122(6):616–23.
Nelson JW, Scammell MK, Hatch EE, Webster TF. Social disparities in exposures to bisphenol A and polyfluoroalkyl chemicals: a cross-sectional study within NHANES 2003-2006. Environ Health. 2012;11(1):10.
Maull EA, Ahsan H, Edwards J, Longnecker MP, Navas-Acien A, Pi J, et al. Evaluation of the association between arsenic and diabetes: a National Toxicology Program workshop review. Environ Health Perspect. 2012;120(12):1658–70.
Ye X, Kuklenyik Z, Needham LL, Calafat AM. Automated on-line column-switching HPLC-MS/MS method with peak focusing for the determination of nine environmental phenols in urine. Anal Chem. 2005;77(16):5407–13.
Jarrett JMJR, Caldwell KL, Verdon CP. Total urine arsenic measurements using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with a dynamic reaction cell. At Spectrosc. 2007;28(4):113–22.
Hornung RW, Reed LD. Estimation of average concentration in the presence of nondetectable values. Appl Occup Environ Hyg. 1990;5(1):46–51.
Fourth report on human exposure to environmental chemicals, Updated Tables, (March, 2018). http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport/ Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ; 2018.
Navas-Acien A, Umans JG, Howard BV, Goessler W, Francesconi KA, Crainiceanu CM, et al. Urine arsenic concentrations and species excretion patterns in American Indian communities over a 10-year period: the Strong Heart Study. Environ Health Perspect. 2009;117(9):1428–33.
Calafat AM, Ye X, Wong LY, Reidy JA, Needham LL. Exposure of the U.S. population to bisphenol A and 4-tertiary-octylphenol: 2003-2004. Environ Health Perspect. 2008;116(1):39–44.
Kim K, Park H. Association between urinary concentrations of bisphenol A and type 2 diabetes in Korean adults: a population-based cross-sectional study. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2013;216(4):467–71.
LaKind JS, Goodman M, Naiman DQ. Use of NHANES data to link chemical exposures to chronic diseases: a cautionary tale. PLoS One. 2012;7(12):e51086.
Steinmaus C, Yuan Y, Liaw J, Smith AH. Low-level population exposure to inorganic arsenic in the United States and diabetes mellitus: a reanalysis. Epidemiology. 2009;20(6):807–15.
Navas-Acien A, Francesconi KA, Silbergeld EK, Guallar E. Seafood intake and urine concentrations of total arsenic, dimethylarsinate and arsenobetaine in the US population. Environ Res 2011;111(1):110-118.
Rudel RA, Gray JM, Engel CL, Rawsthorne TW, Dodson RE, Ackerman JM, et al. Food packaging and bisphenol A and bis(2-ethyhexyl) phthalate exposure: findings from a dietary intervention. Environ Health Perspect. 2011;119(7):914–20.
Pastorino S, Richards M, Hardy R, Abington J, Wills A, Kuh D, et al. Validation of self-reported diagnosis of diabetes in the 1946 British birth cohort. Prim Care Diabetes. 2015;9(5):397–400.
This work was produced by US Government employees (except D.N.) as part of their official duties. Disclaimer: The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Conflict of Interest
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Supervising Editor: Mark B. Mycyk, MD
About this article
Cite this article
Chang, A., Ridpath, A., Carpenter, J. et al. Urine Bisphenol A and Arsenic Levels in Residents of the Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe, South Dakota, with and without Diabetes. J. Med. Toxicol. 16, 276–283 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13181-019-00748-5
- Bisphenol A
- Native Americans