Advertisement

Sexuality Research and Social Policy

, Volume 15, Issue 2, pp 123–138 | Cite as

Who Counts as Family? Family Typologies, Family Support, and Family Undermining Among Young Adult Gay and Bisexual Men

  • Jorge H. Soler
  • Cleopatra H. Caldwell
  • David Córdova
  • Gary Harper
  • José A. Bauermeister
Article

Abstract

Gay and bisexual men may form chosen families in addition to or in place of families of origin. However, the characteristics of these diverse families remain largely unexamined in the quantitative literature. The purpose of this study was to develop a family typology based on responses from a racially and ethnically diverse sample of young adult gay and bisexual men (YGBM) recruited from the Detroit Metropolitan Area (N = 350; 18–29 years old). To explore the role of family, we examined family social support and social undermining in relation to YGBM psychological distress within different family types. A series of multivariate regressions were used to examine associations between family social support and social undermining with depression and anxiety outcomes. The majority (88%) of YGBM included family of origin in their definitions of family and 63% indicated having chosen families. Associations between family social processes and psychological outcomes varied by type of family, suggesting that family composition shapes how perceptions of support and undermining relate to experiencing symptoms of depression and anxiety. Chosen families play a prominent role in the lives of YGBM and should not be overlooked in family research. Findings also highlight the importance of examining co-occurring family social support and social stress processes to further address psychological distress symptoms among YGBM.

Keywords

Social network Family dynamics Mental health Emerging adulthood 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The United for HIV Integration and Policy (UHIP) academic-community partnership included representatives from AIDS Partnership Michigan, the HIV/AIDS Resource Center, Detroit Latin@z, Ruth Ellis Center, and the University of Michigan’s Center for Sexuality & Health Disparities. Research reported in this publication was supported by the MAC AIDS Fund (PI: Bauermeister) and by the National Institute of Allergy & Infectious Diseases of the National Institutes of Health under award number T32AI114398 (Fellow: Jorge Soler). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not represent the official views of the funding agencies.

References

  1. Abbey, A., Abramis, D. J., & Caplan, R. D. (1985). Effects of different sources of social support and social conflict on emotional well-being. Basic Appl Soc Psychol, 6(2), 111–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arnold, E. A., & Bailey, M. M. (2009). Constructing home and family: How the ballroom community supports African American GLBTQ youth in the face of HIV/AIDS. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services, 21(2–3), 171–188. doi: 10.1080/10538720902772006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arnold, E. A., Sterrett-Hong, E., Jonas, A., & Pollack, L. M. (2016). Social networks and social support among ball-attending African American men who have sex with men and transgender women are associated with HIV-related outcomes. Global Public Health. doi: 10.1080/17441692.2016.1180702
  4. Bailey, M. (2013). Butch queens up in pumps: Gender, Performance, and Ballroom Culture in Detroit. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  5. Balsam, K. F., Beauchaine, T. P., Mickey, R. M., & Rothblum, E. D. (2005). Mental health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and heterosexual siblings: Effects of gender, sexual orientation, and family. J Abnorm Psychol, 114(3), 471–476. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.114.3.471.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Barker, J. C., Herdt, G., & Vries, B. (2006). Social support in the lives of lesbians and gay men at midlife and later. Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 3(2), 1–23. doi: 10.1525/srsp.2006.3.2.1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bauermeister, J. A., Goldenberg, T., Connochie, D., Jadwin-Cakmak, L., & Stephenson, R. (2016). Psychosocial disparities among racial/ethnic minority transgender young adults and young men who have sex with men living in Detroit. Transgender Health, 1(1), 279–290. doi: 10.1089/trgh.2016.0027.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Bauermeister, J. A., Johns, M. M., Sandfort, T. G. M., Eisenberg, A., Grossman, A. H., & D’Augelli, A. R. (2010). Relationship trajectories and psychological well-being among sexual minority youth. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39(10), 1148–1163. doi: 10.1007/s10964-010-9557-y.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Bauermeister, J. A., Leslie-Santana, M., Johns, M. M., Pingel, E. S., & Eisenberg, A. (2011). Mr. Right and Mr. Right Now: Romantic and casual partner-seeking online among young men who have sex with men. AIDS Behav, 15(2), 261–272. doi: 10.1007/s10461-010-9834-5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Bauermeister, J. A., Meanley, S., Hickok, A., Pingel, E., Vanhemert, W., & Loveluck, J. (2014). Sexuality-related work discrimination and its association with the health of sexual minority emerging and young adult men in the Detroit Metro Area. Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 11(1), 1–10. doi: 10.1007/s13178-013-0139-0.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Beals, K. P., & Peplau, L. A. (2006). Disclosure patterns within social networks of gay men and lesbians. J Homosex, 51(2), 101–120. doi: 10.1300/J082v51n02_06.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bostwick, W. B., Boyd, C. J., Hughes, T. L., & McCabe, S. E. (2010). Dimensions of sexual orientation and the prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders in the United States. Am J Public Health, 100(3), 468–475. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2008.152942.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Bouris, A., Guilamo-Ramos, V., Pickard, A., Shiu, C., Loosier, P. S., Dittus, P., Gloppen, K., & Michael Waldmiller, J. (2010). A systematic review of parental influences on the health and well-being of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth: Time for a new public health research and practice agenda. J Prim Prev, 31(5–6), 273–309. doi: 10.1007/s10935-010-0229-1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bouris, A., Hill, B. J., Fisher, K., Erickson, G., & Schneider, J. A. (2015). Mother-son communication about sex and routine human immunodeficiency virus testing among younger men of color who have sex with men. J Adolesc Health, 57(5), 515–522. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2015.07.007.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Bregman, H. R., Malik, N. M., Page, M. J. L., Makynen, E., & Lindahl, K. M. (2012). Identity profiles in lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth: The role of family influences. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42(3), 417-430. doi:  10.1007/s10964-012-9798-z
  16. Carpineto, J., Kubicek, K., Weiss, G., Iverson, E., & Kipke, M. D. (2008). Young men’s perspectives on family support and disclosure of same-sex attraction. Journal of LGBT Issues in Counseling, 2(1), 53–80. doi: 10.1080/15538600802077533.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013). Rates of diagnoses of HIV infection among adults and adolescents, by area of residence, 2011—United States and 6 dependent areas. HIV Surveillance Report, 23, 1–84 Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/surveillance/resources/reports/.Google Scholar
  18. Chatters, L. M., Taylor, R. J., & Jayakody, R. (1994). Fictive kinship relations in black extended families. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 25(3), 297-312.Google Scholar
  19. Cochran, S. D., & Mays, V. M. (2000). Relation between psychiatric syndromes and behaviorally defined sexual orientation in a sample of the US population. Am J Epidemiol, 151(5), 516–523.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Cochran, S. D., Sullivan, J. G., & Mays, V. M. (2003). Prevalence of mental disorders, psychological distress, and mental services use among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults in the United States. J Consult Clin Psychol, 71(1), 53–61. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.71.1.53.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Cox, N., Dewaele, A., van Houtte, M., & Vincke, J. (2011). Stress-related growth, coming out, and internalized homonegativity in lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth. An examination of stress-related growth within the minority stress model. J Homosex, 58(1), 117–137. doi: 10.1080/00918369.2011.533631.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Cranford, J. A. (2004). Stress-buffering or stress-exacerbation? Social support and social undermining as moderators of the relationship between perceived stress and depressive symptoms among married people. Pers Relat, 11, 23–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. D’Augelli, A. R. (1994). Identity development and sexual orientation: Toward a model of lesbian, gay, and bisexual development. In Human diversity: Perspectives on people in context (pp. 312–333). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  24. D’Augelli, A. R. (2002). Mental health problems among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths ages 14 to 21. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 7(3), 433–456. doi: 10.1177/1359104502007003010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. D’Augelli, A. R. (2005). Stress and adaptation among families of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth: Research challenges. Journal of GLBT Family Studies, 1(2), 115–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. D’Augelli, A. R., Hershberger, S. L., & Pilkington, N. W. (1998). Lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth and their families: Disclosure of sexual orientation and its consequences. Am J Orthopsychiatry, 68(3), 361–371.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. D’Augelli, A. R., Grossman, A. H., & Starks, M. T. (2005). Parents’ awareness of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths' sexual orientation. J Marriage Fam, 67(2), 474–482. doi: 10.1111/j.0022-2445.2005.00129.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. D’Augelli, A. R., Grossman, A. H., Starks, M. T., & Sinclair, K. O. (2010). Factors associated with parents’ knowledge of gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths’ sexual orientation. Journal of GLBT Family Studies, 6(2), 178–198. doi: 10.1080/15504281003705410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Derogatis, L. R., & Spencer, P. M. (1983). Brief symptom inventory: Administration, scoring, and procedure manual. Baltimore: Clinical Psychometric Research.Google Scholar
  30. Detrie, P. M., & Lease, S. H. (2007). The relation of social support, connectedness, and collective self-esteem to the psychological well-being of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth. J Homosex, 53(4), 173–199. doi: 10.1080/00918360802103449.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Dew, B., Myers, J., & Wightman, L. (2006). Wellness in adult gay males: Examining the impact of internalized homophobia, self-disclosure, and self-disclosure to parents. Journal of LGBT Issues in Counseling, 1(1), 23–41. doi: 10.1300/J462v01n01.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dewaele, A., Cox, N., Vanden Berghe, W., & Vincke, J. (2011). Families of choice? Exploring the supportive networks of lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals. J Appl Soc Psychol, 42(2), 312–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Doty, N. D., Willoughby, B. L. B., Lindahl, K. M., & Malik, N. M. (2010). Sexuality related social support among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39(10), 1134–1147. doi: 10.1007/s10964-010-9566-x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Fergus, S., Lewis, M. A., Darbes, L. A., & Kral, A. H. (2009). Social support moderates the relationship between gay community integration and sexual risk behavior among gay male couples. Health Educ Behav, 36(5), 846–859. doi: 10.1177/1090198108319891.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Floyd, F. J., & Bakeman, R. (2006). Coming-out across the life course: Implications of age and historical context. Arch Sex Behav, 35(3), 287–296. doi: 10.1007/s10508-006-9022-x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Frost, D. M., & Meyer, I. H. (2009). Internalized homophobia and relationship quality among lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals. J Couns Psychol, 56(1), 97–109. doi: 10.1037/a0012844.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. Galindo, G. R. (2013). A loss of moral experience: Understanding HIV-related stigma in the New York City house and ball community. Am J Public Health, 103, 293–299.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Gill-Hopple, K., & Brage-Hudson, D. (2012). Compadrazgo: A literature review. Journal of the Transcultural Nursing Society, 23(2), 117–123. doi: 10.1177/1043659611433870.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gilman, S. E., Cochran, S. D., Mays, V. M., Hughes, M., Ostrow, D., & Kessler, R. C. (2001). Risk of psychiatric disorders among individuals reporting same-sex sexual partners in the National Comorbidity Survey. Am J Public Health, 91(6), 933–939.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. Glick, S. N., & Golden, M. R. (2013). Early male partnership patterns, social support, and sexual risk behavior among young men who have sex with men. AIDS and Behavior, 18(8), 1466-1475. doi.org/ 10.1007/s10461-013-0678-7
  41. Goldenberg, T., & Stephenson, R. (2015). “The more support you have the better”: Partner support and dyadic HIV care across the continuum for gay and bisexual men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr, 69 Suppl 1(0 1), S73–S79. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000000576.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Goldfried, M. R., & Goldfried, A. P. (2001). The importance of parental support in the lives of gay, lesbian, and bisexual individuals. J Clin Psychol, 57(5), 681–693.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Gonzalez, K. A., Rostosky, S. S., Odom, R. D., & Riggle, E. D. B. (2013). The positive aspects of being the parent of an LGBTQ child. Fam Process, 52(2), 325–337. doi: 10.1111/famp.12009.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Goodrich, K. M. (2009). Mom and dad come out: The process of identifying as a heterosexual parent with a lesbian, gay, or bisexual child. Journal of LGBT Issues in Counseling, 3(1), 37–61. doi: 10.1080/15538600902754478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Grafsky, E. L. (2014). Becoming the parent of a GLB son or daughter. Journal of GLBT Family Studies, 10(1–2), 36–57. doi: 10.1080/1550428X.2014.857240.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Gant, L., Nagda, B., & Brabson, H. (1993). Effects of social support and undermining on African American workers’ perceptions of coworker and supervisor relationships and psychological well-being. Soc Work, 38(2), 158–164. doi: 10.1093/sw/38.2.158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Grossman, A. H. (1997). Growing up with a “spoiled identity”. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services, 6(3), 45–56. doi: 10.1300/J041v06n03_03.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Grov, C., Bimbi, D. S., Nanin, J. E., & Parsons, J. T. (2006). Race, ethnicity, gender, and generational factors associated with the coming-out process among gay, lesbian, and bisexual individuals. Journal of Sex Research, 43(2), 115–121. doi: 10.1080/00224490609552306.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Hatzenbuehler, M. L. (2009). How does sexual minority stigma “get under the skin”? A psychological mediation framework. Psychol Bull, 135(5), 707–730. doi: 10.1037/a0016441.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. Hatzenbuehler, M. L., Keyes, K. M., & McLaughlin, K. a. (2011). The protective effects of social/contextual factors on psychiatric morbidity in LGB populations. Int J Epidemiol, 40(4), 1071–1080. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyr019.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. Hatzenbuehler, M. L., McLaughlin, K. A., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2008). Emotion regulation and internalizing symptoms in a longitudinal study of sexual minority and heterosexual adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 49(12), 1270–1278. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.01924.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. House, J. S. (1981). Work, stress and social support. Reading: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  53. Igartua, K. J., Gill, K., & Montoro, R. (2003). Internalized homophobia: A factor in depression, anxiety, and suicide in the gay and lesbian population. Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health, 22(2), 15–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Israel, B. A. (1982). Social networks and health status: Linking theory, research, and practice. Patient Counselling and Health Education, 4(2), 65–79. doi: 10.1016/S0190-2040(82)80002-5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Jadwin-Cakmak, L., Pingel, E., Harper, G. W., & Bauermeister, J. A. (2015). Coming out to dad: Young gay and bisexual men’s experiences disclosing same-sex attraction to their fathers. Am J Mens Health, 9(4), 274–288.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Kahn, R. L., & Antonucci, T. C. (1980). Convoys over the live course: Attachment, roles, and social support. In P. B. Baltes & O. G. Brim (Eds.), Life-span development and behavior (volume 3). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  57. Kapadia, F., Siconolfi, D. E., Barton, S., Olivieri, B., Lombardo, L., & Halkitis, P. N. (2013). Social support network characteristics and sexual risk taking among a racially/ethnically diverse sample of young, urban men who have sex with men. AIDS Behav, 17(5), 1819–1828. doi: 10.1007/s10461-013-0468-2.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. King, M., Semlyen, J., Tai, S. S., Killaspy, H., Osborn, D., Popelyuk, D., & Nazareth, I. (2008). A systematic review of mental disorder, suicide, and deliberate self harm in lesbian, gay and bisexual people. BMC Psychiatry, 8, 70. doi: 10.1186/1471-244X-8-70.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. Kubicek, K., Beyer, W. H., McNeeley, M., Weiss, G., Ultra Omni, L. F. T., & Kipke, M. D. (2013a). Community-engaged research to identify house parent perspectives on support and risk within the house and ball scene. Journal of Sex Research, 50(2), 178–189. doi: 10.1080/00224499.2011.637248.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Kubicek, K., McNeeley, M., Holloway, I. W., Weiss, G., & Kipke, M. D. (2013b). “It’s like our own little world”: Resilience as a factor in participating in the ballroom community subculture. AIDS Behav, 17(4), 1524–1539. doi: 10.1007/s10461-012-0205-2.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. Kuvalanka, K. A. (2012). From ball culture to the gay rodeo: Expanding notions of family. Sex Roles, 67(5–6), 366–368. doi: 10.1007/s11199-012-0147-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Latkin, C. A., Yang, C., Tobin, K., Penniman, T., Patterson, J., & Spikes, P. (2011). Differences in the social networks of African American men who have sex with men only and those who have sex with men and women. Am J Public Health, 101(10), 18–23. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2011.300281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Legate, N., Ryan, R. M., & Weinstein, N. (2011). Is coming out always a “good thing?” Exploring the relations of autonomy support, outness, and wellness for lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals. Soc Psychol Personal Sci, 3(2), 145–152. doi: 10.1177/1948550611411929.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Meyer, I. H. (1995). Minority stress and mental health in gay men. J Health Soc Behav, 36(1), 38–56.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Meyer, I. H. (2003). Prejudice, social stress, and mental health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: Conceptual issues and research evidence. Psychol Bull, 129(5), 674–697. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.129.5.674.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. Muraco, A. (2006). Intentional families: Fictive kin ties between cross-gender, different sexual orientation friends. J Marriage Fam, 68(5), 1313–1325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Mustanski, B. S., Garofalo, R., & Emerson, E. M. (2010). Mental health disorders, psychological distress, and suicidality in a diverse sample of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youths. Am J Public Health, 100(12), 2426–2432. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2009.178319.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. Mustanski, B. S., Newcomb, M. E., Du Bois, S. N., Garcia, S. C., & Grov, C. (2011). HIV in young men who have sex with men: A review of epidemiology, risk and protective factors, and interventions. Journal of Sex Research, 48(2–3), 218–253. doi: 10.1080/00224499.2011.558645.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. Nardi, P. M. (1999). Gay  Men's Friendships: Invicible Communities. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  70. Needham, B. L., & Austin, E. L. (2010). Sexual orientation, parental support, and health during the transition to young adulthood. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39(10), 1189–1198. doi: 10.1007/s10964-010-9533-6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Newcomb, M. E., & Mustanski, B. S. (2010). Internalized homophobia and internalizing mental health problems: A meta-analytic review. Clin Psychol Rev, 30(8), 1019–1029. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2010.07.003.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Newsom, J. T., Nishishiba, M., Morgan, D. L., & Rook, K. S. (2003). The relative importance of three domains of positive and negative social exchanges: A longitudinal model with comparable measures. Psychol Aging, 18(4), 746–754. doi: 10.1037/0882-7974.18.4.746.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Newsom, J. T., Rook, K. S., Nishishiba, M., Sorkin, D. H., & Mahan, T. L. (2005). Understanding the relative importance of positive and negative social exchanges: Examining specific domains and appraisals. The Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 60(6), 304–P312. doi: 10.1093/geronb/60.6.P304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Oswald, R. F. (2002). Resilience within the family networks of lesbians and gay men: Intentionality and redefinition. J Marriage Fam, 64(May), 374–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Oswald, R. F., Blume, L., & Marks, S. (2005). Decentering heteronormativity: A model for family studies. In V. Ern, L. Bengston, A. C. Acock, K. R. Allen, P. Dilworth-Anderson, & D. M. Klein (Eds.), Sourcebook of family theory & research (pp. 143–165). Thousand Oaks: SageGoogle Scholar
  76. Oswald, R. F., Kuvalanka, K. A., Blume, L. B., & Berkowitz, D. (2009). Queering “the family.” In S.A. Lloyd, A.L. Few & K.R. Allen (Eds.), Handbook of feminist family studies (pp. 43–55). Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.Google Scholar
  77. Otis, M. D. (2006). Stress and relationship quality in same-sex couples. J Soc Pers Relat, 23(1), 81–99. doi: 10.1177/0265407506060179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Pahl, R., & Spencer, L. (2010). Family, friends, and personal communities: Changing models-in-the-mind. Journal of Family Theory & Review, 2(3), 197–210. doi: 10.1111/j.1756-2589.2010.00053.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Phillips, M. J., & Ancis, J. R. (2008). The process of identity development as the parent of a lesbian or gay male. Journal of LGBT Issues in Counseling, 2(2), 126–158. doi: 10.1080/15538600802125605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Radloff, L. S. (1991). The use of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale in adolescents and young adults. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 20, 149–166. doi: 10.1007/BF01537606.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Resnick, M. D., Bearman, P. S., Blum, R. W., Bauman, K. E., Harris, K. M., Jones, J., Tabor, J., Beuhring, T., Sieving, R. E., Shew, M., Ireland, M., Bearinger, L. H., & Udry, J. R. (1997). Protecting adolescents from harm. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 278(SEPTEMBER), 823–832. doi: 10.1001/jama.1997.03550100049038.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Rook, K. (1984). The negative side of social interaction: Impact on psychological well-being. J Pers Soc Psychol, 46, 1097–1108.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Rosario, M., Schrimshaw, E. W., & Hunter, J. (2009). Disclosure of sexual orientation and subsequent substance use and abuse among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths: Critical role of disclosure reactions. Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors, 23(1), 175–184. doi: 10.1037/a0014284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Rothblum, E. D., Balsam, K. F., Solomon, S. E., & Factor, R. J. (2005). Siblings and sexual orientation. Journal of GLBT Family Studies, 1(2), 71–87. doi: 10.1300/J461v01n02_05.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Ryan, C., Huebner, D., Diaz, R. M., & Sanchez, J. (2009). Family rejection as a predictor of negative health outcomes in white and Latino lesbian, gay, and bisexual young adults. Pediatrics, 123(1), 346–352. doi: 10.1542/peds.2007-3524.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Ryan, C., Russell, S. T., Huebner, D., Diaz, R. M., & Sanchez, J. (2010). Family acceptance in adolescence and the health of LGBT young adults. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 23(4), 205–213. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-6171.2010.00246.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Savin-Williams, R. C., & Dube, E. (1998). Parental reactions to their child’s disclosure of a gay/lesbian identity. Fam Relat, 47(1), 7–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Savin-Williams, R. C., & Ream, G. L. (2003). Sex variations in the disclosure to parents of same-sex attractions. J Fam Psychol, 17(3), 429–438. doi: 10.1037/0893-3200.17.3.429.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Schneider, J. A., Michaels, S., & Bouris, A. (2012). Family network proportion and HIV risk among black men who have sex with men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr, 61(5), 627–635. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e318270d3cb.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. Schuster, T. L., Kessler, R. C., & Aseltine, R. H. (1990). Supportive interactions, negative interactions, and depressed mood. Am J Community Psychol, 18(3), 423–438. doi: 10.1007/BF00938116.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Sheets, R. L., & Mohr, J. J. (2009). Perceived social support from friends and family and psychosocial functioning in bisexual young adult college students. J Couns Psychol, 56(1), 152–163. doi: 10.1037/0022-0167.56.1.152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Shilo, G., & Savaya, R. (2011). Effects of family and friend support on LGB youths’ mental health and sexual orientation milestones. Fam Relat, 60(3), 318–330. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3729.2011.00648.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Spencer, S. M., & Patrick, J. H. (2009). Social support and personal mastery as protective resources during emerging adulthood. J Adult Dev, 16(4), 191–198. doi: 10.1007/s10804-009-9064-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Szymanski, D. M., Kashubeck-West, S., & Meyer, J. (2008). Internalized heterosexism—Measurement, psychosocial correlates, and research directions. Counseling Psychologist, 36, 525–574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Taylor, S. E. (1991). Asymmetrical effects of positive and negative events: The mobilization-minimization hypothesis. Psychol Bull, 110(1), 67–85. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.110.1.67.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Ueno, K. (2010). Mental health differences between young adults with and without same-sex contact: A simultaneous examination of underlying mechanisms. J Health Soc Behav, 51(4), 391–407. doi: 10.1177/0022146510386793.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Valente, T. W. (2010). Social networks and health: Models, methods, and applications. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  98. Veit CT, & Ware JE, (1983). The structure of psychological distress and well-being in general populations. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51(5), 730-742.Google Scholar
  99. Vinokur, A. D., Schul, Y., & Caplan, R. D. (1987). Determinants of perceived social support: Interpersonal transactions, personal outlook, and transient affective states. J Pers Soc Psychol, 53(6), 1137–1145. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.53.6.1137.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Vinokur, A. D., & van Ryn, M. (1993). Social support and undermining in close relationships: Their independent effects on the mental health of unemployed persons. J Pers Soc Psychol, 65(2), 350–359.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Vinokur, A. D., & Vinokur-Kaplan, D. (1990). “In sickness and in health”: Patterns of social support and undermining in older married couples. Journal of Aging and Health, 2(2), 215–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Waldo, C. R. (1999). Working in a majority context: A structural model of heterosexism as minority stress in the workplace. J Couns Psychol, 46, 218–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Walen, H. R., & Lachman, M. E. (2000). Social support and strain from partner, family, and friends: Costs and benefits for men and women in adulthood. Journal of Social & Personal Relationship, 17(1), 5–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Weeks, J., Heaphy, B., & Donovan, C. (2001). Same sex intimacies: Families of choice and other life experiments. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  105. Weston, K. (1991). Families we choose: Lesbians, gays, kinship. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  106. Willoughby, B. L. B., Doty, N. D., & Malik, N. M. (2010). Victimization, family rejection, and outcomes of gay, lesbian, and bisexual young people: The role of negative GLB identity. Journal of GLBT Family Studies, 6(4), 403–424. doi: 10.1080/1550428X.2010.511085.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Willoughby, B. L. B., Malik, N. M., & Lindahl, K. M. (2006). Parental reactions to their sons’ sexual orientation disclosures: The roles of family cohesion, adaptability, and parenting style. Psychol Men Masculinity, 7(1), 14–26. doi: 10.1037/1524-9220.7.1.14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Wong, C. F., Schrager, S. M., Holloway, I. W., Meyer, I. H., & Kipke, M. D. (2013). Minority stress experiences and psychological well-being: The impact of support from and connection to social networks within the Los Angeles house and ball communities. Prevention Science, 15(1), 44-55. doi: 10.1007/s11121-012-0348-4

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jorge H. Soler
    • 1
  • Cleopatra H. Caldwell
    • 2
  • David Córdova
    • 2
  • Gary Harper
    • 2
  • José A. Bauermeister
    • 3
  1. 1.Columbia UniversityNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.University of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  3. 3.School of NursingUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations