Are Dilemma Zone Protection Systems Useful on High Speed Arterials with Signal Coordination? A Case Study

Abstract

This study assessed the potential deployment of Actuated Advance Warning (AAW) systems on arterials where traffic signals are closely spaced and operate in coordinated mode. Traffic microsimulation and surrogate safety analyses were used to assess the potential safety and operational benefits. The results indicated that, on average, there were 30%, 7% and 30% reductions in the number of rear-end, lane change and crossing conflicts when the AAW system was used. The relative productivity of the system – vehicles processed during a specified period revealed more throughput. These findings can be useful guidance to transportations agencies as they consider potential AAW deployments.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

References

  1. 1.

    McCoy, P.T., Pesti, G.: Advance Detection on High-Speed Signalized Intersection Approaches. Report No. SPR-PL-1(035) P525. University of Nebraska (2002)

  2. 2.

    Appiah, J., et al.: Safety effectiveness of actuated advance warning systems. TRR. 2250, 19–24 (2011)

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Abbas, M., et al.: Modeling the dynamics of Driver's dilemma zone perception using machine learning methods for safer intersection control. In: Report No. MAUTC-2012-04, FHWA (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Elmitiny, N., Yan, X., Radwan, E., Russo, C., Nashar, D.: Classification analysis of Driver’s stop/go decision and red light running violation. Accid. Anal. Prev. 42(1), 101–111 (2010)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Gates, T.J., et al.: Analysis of dilemma zone driver behavior at signalized intersections. TRR. 2030, 29–39 (2007)

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Gates, T.J., Noyce, D.A.: Dilemma zone driver behavior as a function of vehicle type, time of day, and platooning. TRR. 2149, 84–93 (2010)

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Hurwitz, D.S.: Application of Driver Behavior and Comprehension to Dilemma Zone Definition and Evaluation. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Massachusetts (2009)

  8. 8.

    Hurwitz, D.S., Knodler Jr., M.A., Nyquist, B.: Evaluation of driver behavior in type II dilemma zones at high-speed signalized intersections. J. Transp. Eng. 137(4), 277–286 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Hurwitz, D.S., Wang, H., Knodler Jr., M.A., Ni, D., Moore, D.: Fuzzy sets to describe driver behavior in the dilemma zone of high speed signalized intersections. Transp. Res. F. 15(2), 132–143 (2012)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Koonce, P., et al.: Traffic Signal Timing Manual. FHWA (2008)

  11. 11.

    Papaioannou, P.: Driver behavior, dilemma zone and safety effects at urban signalized intersections in Greece. Accid. Anal. Prev. 39(1), 147–158 (2007)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Gazis, H., Maradudin: The problem with the yellow signal light in traffic flow. Oper. Res. 8(1), 112–132 (1960)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Institute of Traffic Engineers, ITE Southern Section: Small area detection at intersection approaches. Technical Report. 18, (1974)

  14. 14.

    Herman, R., Olson, P.L., Rothery, R.W.: The problem of Amber signal lights. Traffic Eng. & Cont. 5, 298–304 (1963)

  15. 15.

    Webster, F.V., Elison, P.B.: Traffic Signals for High-Speed Roads. RRL Technical Paper 74, U.K. Transport and Road Research Laboratory, Crowthorne, England (1965)

  16. 16.

    May, A.D.: Clearance interval at flashing systems. Highw. Res. Rec. 221, (1968)

  17. 17.

    Zeeger, C.V., Deen, R.C.: Green-extension Systems at High-Speed Intersections. ITE Jour. 19–24 (1978)

  18. 18.

    Chang, M.S., Messer, C.J., Santiago, A.J.: Timing traffic signal change intervals based on driver behavior. TRR. 1027, 20–30 (1985)

    Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Bonneson, J.A., McCoy, P.T., Moen, B.A.: Traffic Detector Design and Evaluation Guidelines. Report No. TRP-02-31-93, NDOR (1994)

  20. 20.

    Bonneson, J.A., et al.: Development and Evaluation of a Detection-Control System for Rural Intersections. TTI Research Report TX-02/4022-1 (2002)

  21. 21.

    Sayed, T., Vahidi, H., Rodriguez, F.: Advanced warning flashers: do they improve safety? TRR. 1692, 30–38 (1999)

  22. 22.

    Messer, C.J., et al.: Design and Installation Guidelines for Advance Warning Systems for End-of-Green Phase at High-Speed Traffic Signals. Report FHWA/TX-04/0-4260-4. FHWA (2004)

  23. 23.

    Naik, B., Appiah, J.: Dilemma zone protection on high-speed arterials. In: Report No. 25–1121–0003-055, MATC (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Pant, P., Cheng, Y., Rajagopal, A., Kashayi, N.: Field testing and implementation of dilemma zone protection and signal coordination at closely-spaced high-speed intersections. In: Report No. FHWA/OH-2005/006. Ohio Department of Transportation, Columbus, Ohio (2005)

  25. 25.

    Zimmerman, K.: Additional dilemma zone protection for trucks at high-Speed signalized intersections. TRR. 2009, 82–88 (2007)

  26. 26.

    Eck, R.W., Sabra, Z.A.: Active advance warning signs at high-speed signalized intersections: a survey of practice (abridgement). TRR. 1010, 62–64 (1985)

  27. 27.

    Gibby, A.R., Washington, S.P., Ferrara, T.C.: Evaluation of high-speed isolated signalized intersections in California. TRR. 1376, 45–56 (1992)

  28. 28.

    Klugman, A., Boje, B., Belrose, M.: A study of the use and operation of advance warning flashers at signalized intersections. In: Report MN/RC-93/01. Minnesota Department of Transportation, Saint Paul, MN (1992)

  29. 29.

    Agent, K.R., Pigman, J.G.: Evaluation of change interval treatments for traffic signals at high-speed intersections. In: Report KTC-94-26. Kentucky Transportation Center, Lexington, KY (1994)

  30. 30.

    Pant, P.D., Xie, Y.: Comparative study of advance warning signs at high speed signalized intersections. TRR. 1495, 28–35 (1995)

  31. 31.

    Farraher, B.A.B., Weinholzer, R., Kowski, M.P.: The effect of advance warning flashers on red light running–a study using motion imaging recording system Technology at Trunk Highway 169 and Pioneer Trail in Bloomington, Minnesota. In: Paper Presented at 69th Annual ITE Meeting, Las Vegas, NV (1999)

  32. 32.

    Knodler, M.A., Hurwitz, D.S.: An evaluation of dilemma zone protection practices for signalized intersection control. In: Report No. 2009–6. University of Massachusetts Transportation Center, Amherst, MA (2009)

  33. 33.

    Sunkari, S.R., Messer, C.J., Charara, H.: Performance of advance warning for end of green system for high-speed signalized intersections. TRR. 1925, 176–184 (2005)

  34. 34.

    Gettman, D., et al.: Surrogate Safety Assessment Model and Validation: Final Report. Report FHWA-HRT-08-051. FHWA (2008)

  35. 35.

    Huang, F., Liu, P., Yu, H., Wang, W.: Identifying if VISSIM simulation model and SSAM provide reasonable estimates for field measured traffic conflicts at signalized intersections. Accid. Anal. Prev. 50, 1014–1024 (2013)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Al-Ghandour, M.N., et al.: Conflict Models for Single-Lane Roundabout Slip Lanes from Microsimulation. TRR 2236 (2011)

  37. 37.

    Habtemichael, F., de Picado Santos, L.: Safety and operational benefits of variable speed limits under different traffic conditions and driver compliance levels. TRR. 2386, 7–15 (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Stevanovic, A., Stevanovic, J., Kergaye, C.: Optimization of traffic signal timings based on surrogate measures of safety. Transp. Res. C. 32, 159–178 (2013)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    VISSIM 5.40 User Manual, 2011. Planung Transport Verkher AG, Germany

  40. 40.

    McCoy, P.T., Pesti, G.: Improving dilemma-zone protection of advance detection with advance-warning flashers. TRR. 1844, 11–17 (2003)

    Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Dowling, R.A., Skabardonis, A., Alexiadis, V.: Traffic Analysis Toolbox Volume III: Guidelines for Applying Traffic Microsimulation Software. Report FHWA-HRT-04-040. FHWA (2004)

  42. 42.

    Appiah, J., et al.: Calibration of microsimulation models for advance warning systems. Jour. of Modern Traf. & Transp. Eng. Res. 2(1), 41–47 (2013)

  43. 43.

    Baker, W.T.: Traffic Conflicts Experience in the United States. Proceedings, First Workshop on Traffic Conflicts, Oslo, Norway, 59–70 (1977)

  44. 44.

    Hyden, C.: The development of a method for traffic safety evaluation: the Swedish traffic conflicts technique. Bulletin 70. Department of Traffic Planning and Engineering, Lund University, Lund, Sweden (1987)

  45. 45.

    Chin, H.C., Quek, S.T.: Measurement of traffic conflicts. Saf. Sci. 26(3), 169–185 (1997)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Dowling, R.A.: Traffic Analysis Toolbox Volume IV: Definition, Interpretation, and Calculation of Traffic Analysis Tools Measures of Effectiveness. Report FHWA-HOP-08-054. FHWA (2007)

  47. 47.

    SSAM Manual: Federal Highway Administration. In: Report No. FHWA-HRT-08-050. FHWA (2008)

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the City of Lincoln, Nebraska and the Nebraska Department of Transportation (NDOT), formerly Nebraska Department of Roads (NDOR), for providing background information and network data. The contents of this paper reflect the views of the authors, who are responsible for the facts and the accuracy of the information presented herein, and are not necessarily representative of the City of Lincoln or NDOT.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Bhaven Naik.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Naik, B., Appiah, J. & Rilett, L.R. Are Dilemma Zone Protection Systems Useful on High Speed Arterials with Signal Coordination? A Case Study. Int. J. ITS Res. 18, 219–229 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13177-019-00193-2

Download citation

Keywords

  • Dilemma zone
  • Advance warning
  • Coordination
  • High-speed arterials
  • Safety