Carbonates and Evaporites

, Volume 32, Issue 2, pp 177–194 | Cite as

Petrographic study and geochemical investigation of the evaporites associated with the Germik Formation (Siirt Basin, Turkey)

Original Article

Abstract

Evaporites of the Oligocene Germik Formation are represented by massive, laminated, laminated-banded, banded, nodular and/or brecciated nodular and nodular-banded lithofacies in the Siirt–Kurtalan area. Observations of massive and laminated-banded gypsums with undulated-shaped stromatolitic algal mats, corrugated folded structures and clay-carbonate and interlayered marl in laminated gypsum levels are very important in terms of their mechanisms of occurrences. Petrographic and mineralogic examinations of secondary gypsums in the Germik Formation generally display alabastrine and porphyroblastic textures with corroded anhydrite. Structures as satin-spar, chickenwire, enterolithic and minerals as dolomite, calcite and celestite are also observed. Geochemical evaluations of gypsum and anhydrite samples belong to the lithofacies have provided an approach of their original formation and understandings the environmental impacts (such as pH, paleotemperature, paleosalinity, surface–groundwater activity and bacterial activity). Therefore, a number of analyses were conducted on the different samples for major and trace elements and the gypsum–anhydrite samples were analyzed for isotope compositions. Trace elements of these evaporites were found to be in the range of the geochemical values of the depositional environment of shallow marine evaporites. These values show also occasional influx of terrestrial waters to the environment. Moreover, the differences in the isotopic values of the lithofacies identified by the stable isotopic studies indicate the effects of temperature, salinity, biogenic activity and diagenetic processes for the formation of evaporites, under the influence of climate. Geochemical evolution of gypsum and anhydrite lithofacies of the Germik Formation leads up to muddy evaporites indicating that they were deposited in the coastal sabkha or shallow marine environments within effectively developed paleoclimatic conditions, tectonic activities, diagenetic processes and depositional system.

Keywords

Gypsum Lithofacies Diagenesis Geochemistry Germik Formation Coastal sabkha 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was supported by Yüzüncü Yıl University Scientific Research Project Council (YYU, BAP, Project No: 2008-FBE–D086). We are grateful to İ. Gündoğan (Dokuz Eylül University) for his assisting with the petrographic thin sections. We also thank Ç. Yeşilova (Yüzüncü Yıl University), E.C. Alvarez and Francisco Javier Garcia-Veigas (Barcelona University) for their help with the field work, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and isotope analyses.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Mühendislik Fakültesi, Jeoloji Mühendisliği BölümüYüzüncü Yıl ÜniversitesiVanTurkey
  2. 2.Mühendislik Fakültesi, Jeoloji Mühendisliği BölümüDokuz Eylül UniversitesiBucaTurkey

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