Journal of the Knowledge Economy

, Volume 10, Issue 1, pp 1–17 | Cite as

Freelance as a Creative Mode of Self-employment in a New Economy (a Literature Review)

  • Daniyar T. Baitenizov
  • Igor N. Dubina
  • David F. J. CampbellEmail author
  • Elias G. Carayannis
  • Tolkyn A. Azatbek


Self-employment, as an economic and labour phenomenon, contributes noticeably to the economy of many countries. This paper presents an analytical review of the literature of 1970–2017, on the subject of self-employment and freelance as a new form of self-employment, and reveals tendencies and perspectives for the development of self-employment in context of the processes of globalisation and the forming and formation of a new (creative, knowledge and innovation) economy or a creative creativity economy.


Self-employment Innovation Freelance Knowledge economy Creative economy Creativity economy Innovation economy 



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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniyar T. Baitenizov
    • 1
  • Igor N. Dubina
    • 2
    • 3
  • David F. J. Campbell
    • 4
    • 5
    Email author
  • Elias G. Carayannis
    • 6
  • Tolkyn A. Azatbek
    • 1
  1. 1.L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National UniversityAstanaKazakhstan
  2. 2.Novosibirsk State UniversityNovosibirskRussia
  3. 3.Altai State UniversityBarnaulRussia
  4. 4.Danube University KremsKremsAustria
  5. 5.University of Applied Arts ViennaViennaAustria
  6. 6.The George Washington UniversityWashington DCUSA

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