Who Is Who in Knowledge Economy in Africa?

Abstract

This study assesses the knowledge economy (KE) performance of lagging African countries vis-à-vis their frontier counterparts with regard to the four dimensions of the World Bank’s knowledge economy index (KEI). The empirical exercise is for the period 1996–2010. It consists of first establishing leading nations before suggesting policy initiatives that can be implemented by sampled countries depending on identified gaps that are provided with the sigma convergence estimation approach. The following findings are established as frontier knowledge economy countries: (i) for the most part, North African countries are dominant in education. Tunisia is overwhelmingly dominant in 11 of the 15 years, followed by Libya which is a frontier country in 2 years of the periodicity while Cape Verde and Egypt lead in a single year each of the periodicity; (ii) with the exception of Morocco that is leading in the year 2009, Seychelles is overwhelmingly dominant in ICT; (iii) South Africa also indomitably leads in terms of innovation; and (iv) while Botswana and Mauritius share dominance in institutional regime, economic incentives in terms of private domestic credit are most apparent in Angola (8 years of the periodicity), the Democratic Republic of Congo (3 years of the periodicity) and Tanzania, Sierra Leone, and Malawi (each leading in 1 year of the periodicity).

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Notes

  1. 1.

    There is an important body of ICT literature which has documented benefits in terms of economic prosperity and inclusive development (African Partnership Forum, 2008; Chavula, 2010; Butcher, 2011; Asongu, 2015, 2016).

References

  1. Africa Partnership Forum (2008). ICT in Africa: Boosting economic growth and poverty reduction, 10th meeting of Africa partnership forum, Tokyo, Japan (7-8th April).

  2. African Development Bank (2007). Growing a knowledge based economy: Evidence from public expenditure on education in Africa, Economic Research Working Paper Series No. 88, Tunis, Tunisia.

  3. African Union AU, (2006). Second decade of education for Africa (2006-2015), The African Union Draft Plan of Action (June 2006 version).http://www.adea-comed.org/version2/IMG/pdf/SECOND_DECADE_OF_EDUCATION_FOR.pdf (Accessed: 24/11/2016).

  4. Aker, J., & Mbiti, I. (2010). Mobile phones and economic development in Africa. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 24(3), 207–232.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Albuquerque, E. M. (2000) Scientific infrastructure and catching-up process: Notes about a relationship illustrated by science and technology statistics. The Latin American and. Caribbean Economic Association

  6. Amankwah-Amoah, J. (2015). Solar energy in sub-Saharan Africa: The challenges and opportunities of technological leapfrogging. Thunderbird International Business Review, 57(1), 15–31.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Amankwah-Amoah, J. (2016). Global business and emerging economies: Towards a new perspective on the effects of e-waste. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 105, 20–26.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Amankwah-Amoah, J, (2017). Cultivating greater self-confidence in African management research, Thunderbird International Business Review, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/tie.21921.

  9. Amankwah-Amoah, J., & Sarpong, D. (2016). Historical pathways to a green economy: The evolution and scaling-up of solar PV in Ghana, 1980–2010. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 102, 90–101.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Amavilah, V. H. (2009). Knowledge of African countries: Production and value of doctoral dissertations. Applied Economics, 41(7–9), 977–989.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Amavilah, V., Asongu, A. R., & Andrés, A. R. (2017). Effects of globalization on peace and stability: Implications for governance and the knowledge economy of African countries. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 122(September), 91–103.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Amsden, A. (1989). Asia’s next giant. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Andrés, A. R., & Asongu, S. A. (2013a). Fighting software piracy: Which governance tools matter in Africa? Journal of Business Ethics, 118(3), 667–682.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Andrés, A. R., & Asongu, S. A. (2013b). Global dynamic timelines for IPRs harmonization against software piracy. Economics Bulletin, 33(1), 874–880.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Andrés, A. R., & Asongu, S. A. (2016). Global trajectories, dynamics, and tendencies of business software piracy: Benchmarking IPRs harmonization. Journal of Economic Studies, 43(5), 780–800.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Andrés, A. R., Asongu, S. A., & Amavilah, V. H. S. (2015). The impact of formal institutions on knowledge economy. Journal of the Knowledge Economy, 5(1), 1034–1062.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Anyanwu, J. C. (2012). Developing knowledge for the economic advancement of Africa. International Journal of Academic Research in Economics and Management Sciences, 1(2), 73–111.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Asongu, S. A. (2013a). Harmonizing IPRs on software piracy: Empirics of trajectories in Africa. Journal of Business Ethics, 118(3), 667–682.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Asongu, S. A. (2013b). On the obituary of scientific knowledge monopoly. Economic Bulletin, 33(4), 2718–2731.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Asongu, S. A. (2013c). African stock market performance dynamics: A multidimensional convergence assessment. Journal of African Business, 14(3), 186–201.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Asongu, S. A. (2014a). African development: Beyond income convergence. South African Journal of Economics, 82(3), 334–353.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Asongu, S. A. (2014b). Fighting African capital flight: Empirics on benchmarking policy harmonization. European Journal of Comparative Economics, 11(1), 93–122.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Asongu, S. A. (2015). The impact of mobile phone penetration on African inequality. International Journal of Social Economics, 42(8), 706–716.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Asongu, S. A. (2016). Reinventing foreign aid for inclusive and sustainable development: Kuznets, Piketty and the Great Policy Reversal. Journal of Economic Surveys, 30(4), 736–755.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Asongu, S. A. (2017a). The comparative economics of knowledge economy in Africa: Policy benchmarks, syndromes, and implications. Journal of the Knowledge Economy, 8(2), 596–637.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Asongu, S. A. (2017b). Knowledge economy gaps, policy syndromes and catch-up strategies: Fresh South Korea lessons to Africa. Journal of the Knowledge Economy, 8(1), 211–253.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Asongu, S. A., & Asongu, N. (2018). The comparative exploration of mobile money services in inclusive development. International Journal of Social Economics, 45(1), 124–139.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Asongu, S. A., & Le Roux, S. (2017). Enhancing ICT for inclusive human development in sub-Saharan Africa. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 118(May), 44–54.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Asongu, S. A., & Nwachukwu, J. C., (2015). Foreign aid volatility and lifelong learning: Demand-side empirics to a textual literature, African Governance and Development Institute Working Paper no. 15/016, Yaoundé.

  30. Asongu, S. A., & Nwachukwu, J. C. (2016a). A brief future of time in the monopoly of scientific knowledge. Comparative Economic Studies, 58(4), 638–671.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Asongu, S. A., & Nwachukwu, J. C. (2016b). The mobile phone in the diffusion of knowledge for institutional quality in sub Saharan Africa. World Development, 86(October), 133–147.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Asongu, S. A., & Nwachukwu, J. C. (2016c). The role of governance in mobile phones for inclusive human development in sub-Saharan Africa. Technovation, 55-56(September– October), 1–13.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Asongu, S. A., & Nwachukwu, J. C., (2017). Fighting terrorism: Empirics on policy harmonisation, German Economic Review. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/geer.12126.

  34. Asongu, S. A., & Nwachukwu, J. C. (2018a). Openness, ICT and entrepreneurship in sub-Saharan Africa. Information Technology & People, 31(1), 278–303.

    Google Scholar 

  35. Asongu, S. A., & Nwachukwu, J. C. (2018b). PhD by publication as an argument for innovation and technology transfer: With emphasis on Africa. Higher Education Quarterly, 72(1), 15–28.

    Google Scholar 

  36. Asongu, S. A., & Nwachukwu, J. C. (2018c). The Arab Spring was predictable in 2007: Empirics of proof. The Africagrowth Agenda: Forthcoming.

    Google Scholar 

  37. Asongu, S. A., & Nwachukwu, J. C., & Orim, S-M I., (2017). Mobile phones, institutional quality and entrepreneurship in sub-Saharan Africa, Technological Forecasting and Social Change. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2017.08.007.

  38. Asongu, S. A., & Odhiambo, N. M., (2018). Mobile banking usage, quality of growth, inequality and poverty in developing countries, Information Development. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0266666917744006, 026666691774400.

  39. Asongu, S. A., & Tchamyou, V. S., (2017). Foreign aid, education and lifelong learning in Africa, Journal of the Knowledge Economy. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13132-017-0449-1.

  40. Asongu, S. A., Tchamyou, V. S., Minkoua, N. J. R., Asongu, N., & Tchamyou, N. P. (2018). Fighting terrorism in Africa: Benchmarking policy harmonization. Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, 492(February), 1931–1957.

    Google Scholar 

  41. Aubert, J. E. (2005). Knowledge economies: A global perspective. In A. Bonfour & L. Edvinsson (Eds.), Intellectual capital for communities. Oxford: Elsevier.

    Google Scholar 

  42. Babatunde, M. A. (2012). Africa’s growth and development strategies: A critical review. African Development, Africa Development, XXXVII(4), 141–178.

    Google Scholar 

  43. Balconi, M., Brusoni, S., & Orsenigo, L. (2010). In defense of the linear model: An essay. Research Policy, 39(1), 1–13.

    Google Scholar 

  44. Baliamoune-Lutz, M., (2013). Tunisia’s development experience: A success story?, In Achieving development success: Strategies and lessons from the developing world, ed. Fosu, A., Oxford University Press, pp. 457–480.

  45. Barro, R. (1991). Economic growth in a cross section of countries. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 196(2/May), 407–443.

    Google Scholar 

  46. Barro, R. J., & Sala-i-Martin, X. (1992). Convergence. Journal of Political Economy, 100(2), 223–251.

    Google Scholar 

  47. Barro, R. J., & Sala-i-Martin, X. (1995). Economic growth. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

    Google Scholar 

  48. Baumol, W. J. (1986). Productivity, growth, convergence and welfare: What the long run data show. American Economic Review, 76(5), 1072–1085.

    Google Scholar 

  49. Bezmen, T. L., & Depken, C. A., (2004). The impact of software piracy on economic development, Working Paper. Francis Marion University.

  50. Bidwell, N. J., Winschiers-Theophilus, H., Kapuire, G. K., & Rehm, M. (2011). Pushing personhood into place: Situating media in rural knowledge in Africa. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 69(10), 618–631.

    Google Scholar 

  51. Bizri, O., (2009). The Knowledge economy and the Arab Countries: Current climate and future prospects in education, innovation and technology, Carthage High Level International Conference on Building Knowledge Economies for job creation, increased competiveness and balanced development. December, 1–3, 2009.

  52. Britz, J. J., Lor, P. J., Coetzee, I. E. M., & Bester, B. C. (2006). Africa as a knowledge society: A reality check. The International Information & Library Review, 38(1), 25–24.

    Google Scholar 

  53. Bruno, G., De Bonis, R., & Silvestrini, A. (2012). Do financial systems converge? New evidence from financial assets in OECD countries. Journal of Comparative Economics, 40(1), 141–155.

    Google Scholar 

  54. Butcher, N., (2011). ICT in Africa. A few key challenges, in: ICT, Education, Development, and the Knowledge Society, Thematic Paper prepared for GeSCI African Leadership in ICT Program, December 2011, pp. 33–39.

  55. Cardoso, E., (2013). Between past and future of Latin America: Lessons from Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica and the Dominican Republic , In Achieving development success: Strategies and lessons from the developing world, ed. Fosu, A., Oxford University Press, pp. 406–415.

  56. Carisle, S., Kunc, M., Jones, E., & Tiffin, S. (2013). Supporting innovation for tourism development through multi-stakeholder approaches: Experiences from Africa. Tourism Management, 35(April), 59–69.

    Google Scholar 

  57. Chandra, D. S., & Yokoyama, K., (2011). The role of good governance in the knowledge-based economic growth of East Asia—A study on Japan, Newly Industrialized Economies, Malaysia and China, Graduate School of Economics, Kyushu University.

  58. Chang, H. J. (1994). The political economy of industrial policy. New York: St. Martin Press.

    Google Scholar 

  59. Chang, H-J., (2008). Bad samaritans: The myth of free trade and the secret history of capitalism. Bloomsbury Press; Reprint edition (December 23, 2008).

  60. Chavula, H. K., (2010). The role of knowledge in economic growth. The African perspective, ICT, Science and Technology Division (ISTD), United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA).

  61. Chinn, M.D., & Ito, H., (2002). Capital account liberalization, institutions and financial development: Cross country evidence, NBER Working Paper, No. 8967, Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.

  62. CODESRIA (2014). CODESRIA launches a new programme: African diaspora support to African universities, Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa, http://www.codesria.org/spip.php?article2175&lang=en (Accessed: 26/11/2016)

  63. Cogburn, D. (2003). Governing global information and communications policy: Emergent regime formation and the impact on Africa. Telecommunications Policy, 27(1–2), 135–153.

    Google Scholar 

  64. D’Este, P., & Patel, P. (2007). University-industry linkages in the UK: What are the factors underlying the variety of interactions with industry? Research Policy, 36(9), 1295–1313.

    Google Scholar 

  65. Dahlman, C. (2007). The challenge of the knowledge economy for Latin America. Globalization, Competitiveness and Governability Journal, 1(1), 18–46.

    Google Scholar 

  66. Dahlman, C., Westphal, L. E., & Kim, L. (1985). Reflections on Korea’s acquisition of technological capability. In N. Rosenberg & C. Frisctak (Eds.), International technology transfer: Concepts, measures and comparisons. New York: Pagamon.

    Google Scholar 

  67. De Mello, L., (2013). Brazil’s growth performance: Achievements and prospects, In Achieving development success: Strategies and lessons from the developing world, ed. Fosu, A., Oxford University Press, pp. 295–320.

  68. Demombynes, G., & Thegeya, A. (2012). Kenya’s mobile revolution and the promise of mobile savings. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper, No. 5988, Washington.

  69. Drine, I., (2013). ‘Successful’ development models: Lessons from the MENA region, In Achieving development success: Strategies and lessons from the developing world, ed. Fosu, A., Oxford University Press, pp. 496–504.

  70. Esler, S. L., & Nelson, M. L. (1998). Evolution of scientific and technical information distribution. Journal of the American Society of Information Science, 49(1), 82–91.

    Google Scholar 

  71. Fofack, H., (2014). The idea of economic development: views from Africa, WIDER Working Paper No. 2014/093, Helsinki.

  72. Ford, D. M. (2007). Technologizing Africa: On the bumpy information highway. Computers and Composition, 24(3), 302–316.

    Google Scholar 

  73. Fosu, A. (2010). Africa’s economic future: Learning from the past, CESifo Forum. Info Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, 11(1), 62–71.

    Google Scholar 

  74. Fosu, A. (2012). Development success: Historical accounts from more advanced countries. Helsinki: UNU-WIDER Research Paper.

    Google Scholar 

  75. Fosu, A. (2013a). Achieving development success: Strategies and lessons from the developing world. Helsinki: UNU-WIDER Policy Brief (November).

    Google Scholar 

  76. Fosu, A., (2013b). Country role models for development success: The Ghana case, In Achieving development success: Strategies and lessons from the developing world, ed. Fosu, A., Oxford University Press, pp. 265–283.

  77. Fouda, O. J. P. (2009). La surliquidité des banques en zone franc: Comment expliquer le. paradoxe de la CEMAC? Revue Africaine de l’Intégration, 3(2), 43–97.

    Google Scholar 

  78. Fung, M. K. (2009). Financial development and economic growth: Convergence or divergence? Journal of International Money and Finance, 28(1), 56–67.

    Google Scholar 

  79. German, L., & Stroud, A. (2007). A framework for the integration of diverse learning approaches: Operationalizing agricultural research and development (R&D) linkages in Eastern Africa. World Development, 35(5), 792–814.

    Google Scholar 

  80. Hobday, M. (1995). Innovation in East Asia: The challenge to Japan. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

    Google Scholar 

  81. Islam, N. (2003). What have we learnt from the convergence debate? Journal of Economic Surveys, 17(3), 309–362.

    Google Scholar 

  82. Jelili, R. B., & Jellal, M. (2002). Transferts des migrants tunisiens et qualification - théorie. et évidence. Société Canadienne de Science Economique, 78(3), 397–410.

    Google Scholar 

  83. Jolliffe, I. T. (2002). Principal component analysis (2ndEd. ed.). New York: Springer.

  84. Jomo, K. S., & Wee, C. H., (2013). Lessons from post-colonial Malaysian economic development, In Achieving development success: Strategies and lessons from the developing world, ed. Fosu, A., Oxford University Press.

  85. Jonathan, D., & Camilo, T. (2008). Mobile banking and economic development: Linking adoption, impact and use. Asian Journal of Communication, 18(4), 318–322.

    Google Scholar 

  86. Jones, B. (2002). Economic integration and convergence of per capita income in West Africa. African Development Review, 14(1), 18–47.

    Google Scholar 

  87. Kaiser, H. F. (1974). An index of factorial simplicity. Psychometrika, 39(1), 31–36.

    Google Scholar 

  88. Khan, H. A., (2013). Development strategies: Lessons from the experiences of South Korea, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam, In Achieving development success: Strategies and lessons from the developing world, ed. Fosu, A., Oxford University Press, pp. 119–130.

  89. Kim, Y., Lee, K., Park, W. G., & Choo, K. (2012). Appropriate intellectual property protection and economic growth in countries at different levels of development. Research Policy, 41(2), 358–375.

    Google Scholar 

  90. Kim, L., & Nelson, R. (2000). Technology, learning and innovation: Experiences of newly industrializing economies, Cambridge University Press.

  91. Lee, K., (2013), How can Korea be a role model for catch-up development? A ‘capability-based’ view, In Achieving development success: Strategies and lessons from the developing world, ed. Fosu, A., Oxford University Press pp. 25–49.

  92. Lee, K., & Kim, B. Y. (2009). Both institutions and policies matter but differently for different income groups of countries: Determinants of long-run economic growth revisited. World Development, 37(3), 533–554.

    Google Scholar 

  93. Letiche, J. M. (2006). Positive economic incentives. New behavioural economics and successful economic transitions. Journal of Asian Economics, 17(5), 775–796.

    Google Scholar 

  94. Lightfoot, M., (2011). Promoting the knowledge economy in the Arab world, London Knowledge Lab, Institute of Education.

  95. Lin, B. (2006). A sustainable perspective on the knowledge economy: A critique of Austrian and mainstream view. Ecological Economics, 60(1), 324–332.

    Google Scholar 

  96. Looney, R. E., (2013). The Omani and the Bahraini paths to development: Rare and contrasting oil-based economic success stories, In Achieving development success: Strategies and lessons from the developing world, ed. Fosu, A., Oxford University Press, pp. 419–456.

  97. Lor, P. J., & Britz, J. (2005). Knowledge production from an African perspective: International information flows and intellectual property. The International Information & Library review, 37(2), 61–76.

    Google Scholar 

  98. Lucas, R. E. (1988). On the mechanics of economic development. Journal of Monetary Economics, 22(2), 3–42.

    Google Scholar 

  99. Lucas, R. E. (1993). Making a miracle. Econometrica, 61(2), 251–272.

    Google Scholar 

  100. Lundahl, M., & Petersson, L., (2013). Post apartheid South Africa: An economic story?, In Achieving development success: Strategies and lessons from the developing world, ed. Fosu, A., Oxford University Press, pp. 232–262

  101. Lwoga, E. T., Ngulube, P., & Stilwell, C. (2010). Managing indigenous knowledge for sustainable agricultural development in developing countries: Knowledge management approaches in the social context. The International Information & Library Review, 42(3), 172–185.

    Google Scholar 

  102. Makinda, S. M. (2007). How Africa can benefit from knowledge. Futures, 39(8), 973–985.

    Google Scholar 

  103. Mankiw, N. G., Romer, D., & Weil, D. N. (1992). A contribution to the empirics of economic growth. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 107(May), 407–437.

    Google Scholar 

  104. Maswera, T., Dawson, R., & Edwards, J. (2008). E-commerce adoption of travel and tourism organisations in South Africa, Kenya, Zimbabwe and Uganda. Telematics and Informatics, 25(3), 187–200.

    Google Scholar 

  105. Maurer, B. (2008). Retail electronic payments systems for value transfers in the developing world. Department of Anthropology, University of California.

  106. Mayer-Foulkes, D., (2010). Divergences and convergences in human development. UNDP Human Development Research Paper No. 2010/20, New York.

  107. Mazzoleni, R. (2008). Catching up and academic institutions: A comparative study of past national experiences. The Journal of Development Studies, 44(5), 678–700.

    Google Scholar 

  108. Mazzoleni, R., & Nelson, R. (2007). Public research institutions and economic catch-up. Research Policy, 36(10), 1512–1152.

    Google Scholar 

  109. Merritt, C. (2010). Mobile money transfer services: The next phase in the evolution in person-to-person payments. Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, Retail Payments Risk Forum White Paper.

  110. Monfort, P., (2008). Convergence of EU regions: Measures and evolution, European Union Regional Policy Paper No. 01/2008, Brussels.

  111. Moodley, S. (2003). The challenge of e-business for the South African apparel sector. Technovation, 23(7), 557–570.

    Google Scholar 

  112. Morrison, A., Cassi, I., & Rabellotti, R. (2009). Catching-up countries and the geography of science in the wine industry, Copenhagen Business School, 2009 Summer Conference.

  113. Mowery, D. C., & Sampat, B. N., (2005). Universities and innovation, The Oxford Handbook on Innovation Ed. Fagerberg, J. Mowery, D., and Nelson, R., Oxford University Press.

  114. Mshomba, R. E., (2011). Africa and the World Trade Organization. Cambridge University Press; Reprint edition (February 21, 2011).

  115. Murray, F., & Stern, S., (2005). Do formal intellectual property rights hinder the free flow of scientific knowledge? An empirical test of the anti-commons hypothesis. NBER Working Paper No. 11465, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

  116. Myburgh, A. F. (2011). Legal developments in the protection of plant-related traditional knowledge: An intellectual property lawyer’s perspective of the international and South African legal framework. South African Journal of Botany, 77(4), 844–849.

    Google Scholar 

  117. Narayan, P. K., Mishra, S., & Narayan, S. (2011). Do market capitalization and stocks traded converge? New global evidence. Journal of Banking and Finance, 35(10), 2771–2781.

    Google Scholar 

  118. Naudé, W., (2013). Development progress in sub-Saharan Africa: Lessons from Botswana, Ghana, Mauritius and South Africa, In Achieving development success: Strategies and lessons from the developing world, ed. Fosu, A., Oxford University Press, pp. 284–292.

  119. Neimark, B. D. (2012). Industrializing nature, knowledge, and labour: The political economy of bioprospecting in Madagascar. Geoforum, 43(5), 980–990.

    Google Scholar 

  120. Nyarko, Y. (2013a). Sustaining high economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa: Knowledge and the structure of the economy. Journal of African Economies, 22(suppl_1), i77–i101.

    Google Scholar 

  121. Nyarko, Y., (2013b). The United Arab Emirates: Some lessons in economic development, In Achieving development success: Strategies and lessons from the developing world, ed. Fosu, A., Oxford University Pres, pp. 481–495.

  122. OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development). (1992). Technology and economy: The key relationships. OECD: Paris.

    Google Scholar 

  123. Ondiege, P. (2010). Mobile banking in Africa: Taking the bank to the people. Africa Economic Brief, 1(8), 1–16.

    Google Scholar 

  124. Oyelaran-Oyeyinka, B., & Sampath, P. G., (2007). Innovation in African development. Case studies of Uganda, Tanzania and Kenya, A World Bank study. http://info.worldbank.org/etools/docs/library/239730/InnovationInAfricaFinalPaper.pdf (Accessed: 22/03/2014).

  125. Pailey, R. N., (2016). Where is the ‘African’ in African Studies?, Africa at the London School of Economics, http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/africaatlse/2016/06/27/where-is-the-african-in-african-studies/ (Accessed: 25/07/2016).

  126. Penard, T., Poussing, N., Yebe, G. Z., & Ella, P. N. (2012). Comparing the determinants of Internet and cell phone use in Africa: Evidence from Gabon. Communications & Strategies, 86(2), 65–83.

    Google Scholar 

  127. Pozo, S., Sanchez-Fung, J., & Santos-Paulino, A. U., (2013). Economic development strategies in the Dominican Republic, In Achieving development success: Strategies and lessons from the developing world, ed. Fosu, A., Oxford University Press, pp. 383–405.

  128. Preece, J. (2013). Africa and international policy making for lifelong learning: Textual revelations. International Journal of Educational Development, 33(1), 98–105.

    Google Scholar 

  129. Rapacki, R., & Prochniak, M. (2009). Real beta and sigma convergence in 27 transition countries, 1990-2005. Post-Communists Economies, 21(3), 307–326.

    Google Scholar 

  130. Raseroka, K. (2008). Information transformation Africa: Indigenous knowledge—Securing space in the knowledge society. The International Information and Library Review, 40(4), 243–250.

    Google Scholar 

  131. Robinson, J., (2013). Botswana as a role model for country success, In Achieving development success: Strategies and lessons from the developing world, ed. Fosu, A., Oxford University Press, pp. 187–203.

  132. Rooney, D. (2005). Knowledge, economy, technology and society: The politics of discourse. Telematics and Informatics, 22(4), 405–422.

    Google Scholar 

  133. Santos-Paulino, A. U., (2013). Country role model of development success: Lessons from China and India , In Achieving development success: Strategies and lessons from the developing world, ed. Fosu, A., Oxford University Press, pp. 176–184.

  134. Saxegaard, M., (2006). Excess liquidity and effectiveness of monetary policy: Evidence from sub-Saharan Africa, IMF Working Paper No. 06/115, Washington.

  135. Singh, N., (2013). Democracy, diversity and development: India’s strategy and outcomes, In Achieving development success: Strategies and lessons from the developing world, ed. Fosu, A., Oxford University Press, pp. 133–175.

  136. Solimano, A., (2013). Three decades of neoliberal economics in Chile: Achievements, failures and dilemmas, In Achieving development success: Strategies and lessons from the developing world, ed. Fosu, A., Oxford University Press, pp. 321–359.

  137. Solow, R. M. (1956). A contribution to the theory of economic growth. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 70(1), 65–94.

    Google Scholar 

  138. Ssozi, J., & Asongu, S. A. (2016). The comparative economics of catch-up in output per worker, total factor productivity and technological gain in sub-Saharan Africa. African Development Review, 28(2), 215–228.

    Google Scholar 

  139. Stiglitz, J. E., (2007). Making globalization work. W. W. Norton & Company; Reprint edition (September 17, 2007).

  140. Subramanian, A., (2013). The Mauritian success story and its lessons, In Achieving development success: Strategies and lessons from the developing world, ed. Fosu, A., Oxford University Press, pp. 204–231.

  141. Swan, T. (1956). Economic growth and capital accumulation. Economic Record, 32(2), 334–361.

    Google Scholar 

  142. Tchamyou, S. V. (2017). The role of knowledge economy in African business. Journal of Knowledge Economy, 8(4), 1189–1228.

    Google Scholar 

  143. Tchamyou, V. S., (2018). Education, lifelong learning, inequality and financial access: Evidence from African countries”, Contemporary Social Science. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/21582041.2018.1433314.

  144. Tchamyou, S. V., & Asongu, S. A. (2017). Information sharing and financial sector development in Africa. Journal of African Business, 18(1), 24–49.

    Google Scholar 

  145. Thacker, K. U. M & Wright, G. A. N. (2012, January). Building business models for money. MicroSave Briefing Note No.116, Nairobi.

  146. Thoburn, J., (2013). Vietnam as a role model for development, In Achieving development success: Strategies and lessons from the developing world, ed. Fosu, A., Oxford University Press, pp. 99–118.

  147. Tran, M., (2011). “South Korea: a A model of development?”, The Guardian, http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/poverty-matters/2011/nov/28/south-korea-development-model (Accessed: 14/03/2014)

  148. Trejos, A., (2013). Country role models for development success: The case of Costa Rica, In Achieving development success: Strategies and lessons from the developing world, ed. Fosu, A., Oxford University Press, pp. 360–382.

  149. United Nations (2009). Worlds population prospects. United Nations.

  150. Utterback, J. M. (1975). A dynamic model of process and product innovation. Omega, 3(6), 649–656.

    Google Scholar 

  151. Wa Gĩthĩnji, M., & Adesida, O., (2011). Industrialization, exports and the developmental state in Africa: The case for transformation, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Department of Economics Working Paper, No. 2011–18, Amherst.

  152. Wagiciengo, M. M., & Belal, A. R. (2012). Intellectual capital disclosure by South African companies: A longitudinal investigation. Advances in Accounting, 28(1), 111–119.

    Google Scholar 

  153. Wantchekon, L., Klasnja, M., & Novta, N., (2014). Education and human capital externalities: Evidence from colonial Benin, Department of Politics, Princeton University.

  154. Warr, P., (2013). Thailand’s development strategy and growth performance, In Achieving development success: Strategies and lessons from the developing world, ed. Fosu, A., Oxford University Press, pp. 72–94.

  155. Weber, A. S. (2011). The role of education in knowledge economies in developing countries. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 15(2011), 2589–2594.

    Google Scholar 

  156. Wolff, F.-C., & Jellal, M. (2003). International migration and human capital formation. Economics Bulletin, 15(10), 1–8.

    Google Scholar 

  157. World Bank. (1993). The East Asian miracle: Economic growth and public policy. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  158. World Bank, (2007). Building knowledge economies. Advanced strategies for development, World Bank Institute.

  159. Yao, Y. E., (2013). The disinterested government: An interpretation of China’s economic success in the reform era , In Achieving Development Success: Strategies and Lessons from the Developing World, ed. Fosu, A., Oxford University Press, pp.152–175.

  160. Young, A. T., Higgins, M. J., & Levy, N. (2008). Sigma convergence versus beta convergence: Evidence from U.S. county-level data. Journal of Money Credit and Banking, 40(5), 1083–1093.

    Google Scholar 

  161. Zerbe, N. (2005). Biodiversity, ownership, and indigenous knowledge: Exploring legal frameworks for community, farmers, and intellectual property rights in Africa. Ecological Economics, 53(4), 493–506.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors are indebted to the editor and reviewers for constructive comments.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Simplice A. Asongu.

Ethics declarations

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by the authors.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Appendices

Appendices

Appendix 1

Table 3 Definition of variables

Appendix 2

Table 4 Summary statistics

Appendix 3

Table 5 Correlation analysis
figureafigureafigureafigureafigureafigureafigureafigureafigurea

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Asongu, S.A., Tchamyou, V.S. & Acha-Anyi, P.N. Who Is Who in Knowledge Economy in Africa?. J Knowl Econ 11, 425–457 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13132-018-0547-8

Download citation

Keywords

  • Knowledge economy
  • Benchmarks
  • Policy syndromes
  • Catch-up
  • Africa

JEL Classification

  • O10
  • O30
  • O38
  • O55
  • O57