Acta Oceanologica Sinica

, Volume 37, Issue 4, pp 12–21 | Cite as

Source apportionment and ecological risk assessment of PAHs in surface sediments from the Liaodong Bay, northern China

  • Yufeng Zhang
  • Jinhao Wu
  • Lun Song
  • Yonggang Song
  • Meng Yang
  • Nianbin Wang
  • Jiabo Han
  • Daoming Guan
Article

Abstract

The sources and ecological risk from sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediment in the Liaodong Bay were investigated from 2014 to 2015. The total concentrations of PAHs ranged from 88.5 to 347.1 ng/g, and the high value occurred in the central region of the Liaodong Bay. Cluster analysis identified two site clusters representing the coastal region affected by land-based pollution and the central region of the Liaodong Bay. Principal component analysis-multiple linear regression and diagnostic ratios suggested that PAHs contaminants originated from a mixture of combustion and petroleum sources, and the major was combustion sources. Based on sediment quality guideline, naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, phenanthrene and dibenz[a,h]anthracene may occasionally cause adverse biological effects in some stations. The toxic equivalent concentrations of carcinogenic PAHs indicated low carcinogenic risk for the Liaodong Bay. The ecological risk and toxic pollution levels of PAHs were higher in the central region than in the coastal region along the Liaodong Bay.

Keywords

polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Liaodong Bay source apportionment ecological risk assessment sediment 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank all the staffs from the Liaoning Ocean Environment Monitoring Station for their industrious work in the sampling and data collection.

References

  1. Barakat A O, Mostafa A, Wade T L, et al. 2011. Distribution and characteristics of PAHs in sediments from the Mediterranean coastal environment of Egypt. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 62(9): 1969–1978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baumard P, Budzinski H, Garrigues P. 1998a. PAHs in Arcachon Bay, France: Origin and biomonitoring with caged organisms. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 36(8): 577–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baumard P, Budzinski H, Garrigues P. 1998b. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments and mussels of the western Mediterranean Sea. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 17(5): 765–776CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boonyatumanond R, Murakami M, Wattayakorn G, et al. 2007. Sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust in a tropical Asian mega-city, Bangkok, Thailand. Science of the Total Environment, 384(1–3): 420–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen C F, Chen C W, Dong Chengdi, et al. 2013. Assessment of toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments of Kaohsiung Harbor, Taiwan. Science of the Total Environment, 463–464: 1174–1181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cho J Y, Son J G, Park B J, et al. 2009. Distribution and pollution sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in reclaimed tidelands and tidelands of the western sea coast of South Korea. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 149(1–4): 385–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Christensen E R, Li A, Razak I A A, et al. 1997. Sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments of the Kinnickinnic River, Wisconsin. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 23(1): 61–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Darilmaz E, Kontas A, Uluturhan E, et al. 2013. Spatial variations in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations at surface sediments from the Cyprus (Eastern Mediterranean): relation to ecological risk assessment. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 75(1–2): 174–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dobbins R A, Fletcher R A, Benner Jr B A, et al. 2006. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in flames, in diesel fuels, and in diesel emissions. Combustion and Flame, 144(4): 773–781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Douben P E T. 2003. The sources, transport, and fate of PAHs in the marine environment. In: Latimer J S, Zheng J S, eds. PAHs: An Ecotoxicological Perspective. Hoboken, New Jesey: John Wiley & Sons, 7–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ekpo B O, Oyo-Ita O E, Oros D R, et al. 2012. Distributions and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments from the Cross River Estuary, S. E. Niger Delta, Nigeria. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 184(2): 1037–1047CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Feng Jinglan, Niu Junfeng. 2007. Study on the grainsize distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Yangtze River sediment. Environmental Science (in Chinese), 28(7): 1573–1577Google Scholar
  13. Fernandes M B, Sicre M A, Boireau A, et al. 1997. Polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) distributions in the Seine River and its estuary. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 34(11): 857–867CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Guo Wei, He Mengchang, Yang Zhifeng, et al. 2007. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water, suspended particulate matter and sediment from Daliao River watershed, China. Chemosphere, 68(1): 93–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Guo H, Lee S C, Ho K F, et al. 2003. Particle-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban air of Hong Kong. Atmospheric Environment, 37(38): 5307–5317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Harrison R M, Smith D J T, Luhana L. 1996. Source apportionment of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons collected from an urban location in Birmingham, U. K.. Environmental Science & Technology, 30(3): 825–832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. He Xinran, Pang Yong, Song Xiaojuan, et al. 2014. Distribution, sources and ecological risk assessment of PAHs in surface sediments from Guan River Estuary, China. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 80(1–2): 52–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hu Ningjing, Huang Peng, Liu Jihua, et al. 2013. Source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments of the Bohai Sea, China. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 20(2): 1031–1040CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hu Ningjing, Huang Peng, Liu Jihua, et al. 2014. Characterization and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments in the Yellow River Estuary, China. Environmental Earth Sciences, 71(2): 873–883CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hu Jian, Liu Congqiang, Zhang Guoping, et al. 2016. Distribution characteristics and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Liao River drainage basin, northeast China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 188(4): 227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hu Ningjing, Shi Xuefa, Huang Peng, et al. 2011a. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments of Laizhou Bay, Bohai Sea, China. Environmental Earth Sciences, 63(1): 121–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hu Ningjing, Shi Xuefa, Huang Peng, et al. 2011b. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments of Liaodong Bay, Bohai Sea, China. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 18(2): 163–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hu Ningjing, Shi Xuefa, Liu Jihua, et al. 2010. Concentrations and possible sources of PAHs in sediments from Bohai Bay and adjacent shelf. Environmental Earth Sciences, 60(8): 1771–1782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Huang Weixia, Wang Zhiyuan, Yan Wen. 2012. Distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments from Zhanjiang Bay and Leizhou Bay, South China. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 64(9): 1962–1969CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jiao Wentao, Wang Tieyu, Khim J S, et al. 2013. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils along the coastal and estuarine areas of the northern Bohai and Yellow Seas, China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 185(10): 8185–8195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Keith L, Telliard W. 1979. ES&T special report: priority pollutants: I. a perspective view. Environmental Science & Technology, 13(4): 416–423Google Scholar
  27. Larsen III R K, Baker J E. 2003. Source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the urban atmosphere: a comparison of three methods. Environmental Science & Technology, 37(9): 1873–1881CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Li Yuhu, Li Ping, Ma Wandong, et al. 2015. Spatial and temporal distribution and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface seawater from the Haikou Bay, China. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 92(1–2): 244–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lima A L C, Farrington J W, Reddy C M. 2005. Combustion-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the environment—a review. Environmental Forensics, 6(2): 109–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Liu Aixia, Lang Yinhai, Xue Lidong, et al. 2009. Probabilistic ecological risk assessment and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments from Yellow Sea. Bulletin Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 83(5): 681–687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Liu Liangying, Wang Jizhong, Wei Gaoling, et al. 2012. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in continental shelf sediment of China: Implications for anthropogenic influences on coastal marine environment. Environmental Pollution, 167: 155–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Long E R, Macdonald D D, Smith S L, et al. 1995. Incidence of adverse biological effects within ranges of chemical concentrations in marine and estuarine sediments. Environmental Management, 19(1): 81–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ma Xindong, Zhang Haijun, Wang Zhen, et al. 2014. Bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of short chain chlorinated paraffins in a marine food web from Liaodong Bay, North China. Environmental Science & Technology, 48(10): 5964–5971CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Macdonald D D, Carr R S, Calder F D, et al. 1996. Development and evaluation of sediment quality guidelines for Florida coastal waters. Ecotoxicology, 5(4): 253–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Masclet P, Mouvier G, Nikolaou K. 1986. Relative decay index and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Atmospheric Environment (1967), 20(3): 439–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Men Bin, He Mengchang, Tan Li, et al. 2009. Distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Daliao River Estuary of Liaodong Bay, Bohai Sea (China). Marine Pollution Bulletin, 58(6): 818–826CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Nilsen E B, Rosenbauer R J, Fuller C C, et al. 2015. Sedimentary organic biomarkers suggest detrimental effects of PAHs on estuarine microbial biomass during the 20th century in San Francisco Bay, CA, USA. Chemosphere, 119: 961–970CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Oliva A L, Quintas P Y, La Colla N S, et al. 2015. Distribution, sources, and potential ecotoxicological risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments from Bahía Blanca Estuary, Argentina. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 69(2): 163–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Parinos C, Gogou A, Bouloubassi I, et al. 2013. Sources and downward fluxes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the open southwestern Black Sea. Organic Geochemistry, 57: 65–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Pozo K, Perra G, Menchi V, et al. 2011. Levels and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments from Lenga Estuary, central Chile. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 62(7): 1572–1576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Qian Xiao, Liang Baocui, Fu Wenjun, et al. 2016. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments from the intertidal zone of Bohai Bay, Northeast China: Spatial distribution, composition, sources and ecological risk assessment. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 112(1–2): 349–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Qiao Min, Wang Chunxia, Huang Shengbiao, et al. 2006. Composition, sources, and potential toxicological significance of PAHs in the surface sediments of the Meiliang Bay, Taihu Lake, China. Environment International, 32(1): 28–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rong Xiaokun. 2011. Study on the distribution of organic components in oil production wastewater and ecological risk assessment (in Chinese) [dissertation]. Tianjin: Nankai UniversityGoogle Scholar
  44. Simcik M F, Eisenreich S J, Lioy P J. 1999. Source apportionment and source/sink relationships of PAHs in the coastal atmosphere of Chicago and Lake Michigan. Atmospheric Environment, 33(30): 5071–5079CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Song Xueying, Sun Li’na, Yang Xiaobo, et al. 2008. Contamination status of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in topsoils of Liao River Basin. Journal of Agro-Environment Science (in Chinese), 27(1): 216–220Google Scholar
  46. Tsai P J, Shih T S, Chen H L, et al. 2004. Assessing and predicting the exposures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their carcinogenic potencies from vehicle engine exhausts to highway toll station workers. Atmospheric Environment, 38(2): 333–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Venkataraman C, Lyons J M, Friedlander S K. 1994. Size distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and elemental carbon: 1. sampling, measurement methods, and Source Characterization. Environmental Science & Technology, 28(4): 555–562Google Scholar
  48. Viñas L, Franco M A, Soriano J A, et al. 2010. Sources and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments from the Spanish northern continental shelf. Assessment of spatial and temporal trends. Environmental Pollution, 158(5): 1551–1560Google Scholar
  49. Wang Wei, Huang Minjuan, Kang Yuan, et al. 2011. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban surface dust of Guangzhou, China: status, sources and human health risk assessment. Science of the Total Environment, 409(21): 4519–4527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Wang Xiaoyan, Xu Huanzhi, Zhou Yongdong, et al. 2015. Distribution and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments from Zhoushan Archipelago and Xiangshan Harbor, East China Sea. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 101(2): 895–902CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Xu Donghao. 2012. The modern sedimentary characteristics and provenance analysis of the Liaodong Bay (in Chinese) [dissertation]. Jilin: Jilin UniversityGoogle Scholar
  52. Yang Min. 2003. Studies on persistent organic pollutants in the surface sediments of Liao River Basin (in Chinese) [dissertation]. Dalian: Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of SciencesGoogle Scholar
  53. Ye Bixiong, Zhang Zhihuan, Mao Ting. 2006. Pollution sources identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of soils in Tianjin area, China. Chemosphere, 64(4): 525–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Yunker M B, Macdonald R W, Vingarzan R, et al. 2002. PAHs in the Fraser River basin: a critical appraisal of PAH ratios as indicators of PAH source and composition. Organic Geochemistry, 33(4): 489–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Zhang Daolai, Liu Jinqing, Jiang Xuejun, et al. 2016a. Distribution, sources and ecological risk assessment of PAHs in surface sediments from the Luan River Estuary, China. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 102(1): 223–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Zhang Anguo, Yuan Xiutang, Hou Wenjiu, et al. 2013. Carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus budgets of the surfclam Mactra veneriformis (Reeve) based on a field study in the Shuangtaizi estuary, Bohai Sea of China. Journal of Shellfish Research, 32(2): 275–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Zhang Anguo, Yuan Xiutang, Yang Xiaolong, et al. 2016b. Temporal and spatial distributions of intertidal macrobenthos in the sand flats of the Shuangtaizi Estuary, Bohai Sea in China. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 36(3): 172–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Zhang Anguo, Zhao Shilan, Wang Lili, et al. 2016c. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in seawater and sediments from the northern Liaodong Bay, China. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 113(1–2): 592–599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Zhu Lizhong, Cai Xuefen, Wang Jing. 2005. PAHs in aquatic sediment in Hangzhou, China: analytical methods, pollution pattern, risk assessment and sources. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 17(5): 748–755Google Scholar
  60. Zuo Qian, Duan Yonghong, Yang Yaling, et al. 2007. Source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface soil in Tianjin, China. Environmental Pollution, 147(2): 303–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Chinese Society of Oceanography and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yufeng Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Jinhao Wu
    • 2
    • 3
  • Lun Song
    • 2
    • 3
  • Yonggang Song
    • 2
    • 3
  • Meng Yang
    • 4
  • Nianbin Wang
    • 2
    • 3
  • Jiabo Han
    • 2
    • 3
  • Daoming Guan
    • 1
    • 5
  1. 1.College of Chemistry and Chemical EngineeringOcean University of ChinaQingdaoChina
  2. 2.Liaoning Ocean and Fisheries Science Research InstituteDalianChina
  3. 3.Liaoning Ocean Environment Monitoring StationDalianChina
  4. 4.Dalian Environmental Monitoring CenterDalianChina
  5. 5.National Marine Environmental Monitoring CenterDalianChina

Personalised recommendations