Diagenetic fluids evolution of Oligocene Huagang Formation sandstone reservoir in the south of Xihu Sag, the East China Sea Shelf Basin: constraints from petrology, mineralogy, and isotope geochemistry

Abstract

The Oligocene Huagang Formation is the main sandstone reservoir in the Xihu Sag, situated in the east of the East China Sea Shelf Basin. With an integrated approach of thin-section petrography, ultra-violet fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and isotope geochemistry, the different diagenetic features were identified, the typical diagenetic parasequences were established, and the diagenetic fluids evolution history were reconstructed for the Oligocene Huagang Formation sandstone reservoir in the south of Xihu Sag. The Huagang Formation sandstone reservoir is now in Period B of the mesodiagenesis, which has undergone significant diagenetic alterations such as mechanical compaction, Pore-lining chlorite cement, feldspar dissolution, quartz cementation and dissolution, and carbonate cementation. Three types of carbonate cements (early siderite, medium ferrocalcite and late ankerite) were identified in the Huagang Formation sandstone reservoir. The carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of carbonate cements show that the early calcite precipitate from alkaline lacustrine environment whereas the late carbonate cements were closely related to the organic acids. To the Huagang Formation sandstone reservoir, it has experienced two main episodes of dissolution during diagenesis. The early dissolution is that unstable components such as feldspar, lithic fragments, and carbonate cement were dissolved by acidic water. The second dissolution is that quartz and other silicate minerals were dissolved under the alkaline condition. Two main phases of hydrocarbon charging occurred in this study area. The first hydrocarbon emplacement was prior to the medium carbonate cementation but posterior to feldspar dissolution and the onset of quartz cementation at the end of the Miocene. The second hydrocarbon charging occurred in the Quaternary period after the late carbonate precipitation.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Abdel-Wahab A, McBride E F. 2001. Origin of giant calcite-cemented concretions, temple member, Qasr El Sagha formation (Eocene), Faiyum depression, egypt. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 71(1): 70–81

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Brown D M, McAlpine K D, Yole R W. 1989. Sedimentology and sandstone diagenesis of Hibernia Formation in Hibernia oil field, Grand Banks of Newfoundland. AAPG Bulletin, 73(5): 557–575

    Google Scholar 

  3. Chen Zhiyong, Ge Heping. 2003. Inversion structures and hydrocarbon accumulation in Xihu Sag, East China Sea Basin. China Offshore Oil and Gas (Geology) (in Chinese), 17(1): 20–24

    Google Scholar 

  4. Choquette P W, Pray L C. 1970. Geologic nomenclature and classification of porosity in sedimentary carbonates. AAPG Bulletin, 54(2): 207–250

    Google Scholar 

  5. Dong Tian, He Sheng, Wang Dexi, et al. 2014. Hydrocarbon migration and accumulation in the Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation, Changling Sag, southern Songliao Basin: insights from integrated analyses of fluid inclusion, oil source correlation and basin modelling. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 90: 77–87

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Dong Fuxiang, Liu Li, Ma Yanping. 2004. Carbon and oxygen isotopes of calcite cement in the lower part of the Sha-1 Formation, the Dagang beach area. Petroleum Geology & Experiment (in Chinese), 26(6): 590–593

    Google Scholar 

  7. Dutton S P. 2008. Calcite cement in Permian deep-water sandstones, Delaware Basin, west Texas: origin, distribution, and effect on reservoir properties. AAPG Bulletin, 92(6): 765–787

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Epstein S A, Friedman G M. 1982. Processes controlling precipitation of carbonate cement and dissolution of silica in reef and nearreef settings. Sedimentary Geology, 33(3): 157–171

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Fayek M, Harrison T M, Grove M, et al. 2001. In situ stable isotopic evidence for protracted and complex carbonate cementation in a petroleum reservoir, North Coles Levee, San Joaquin Basin, California, U.S.A. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 71(3): 444–458

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Gier S, Worden R H, Johns W D, et al. 2008. Diagenesis and reservoir quality of Miocene sandstones in the Vienna Basin, Austria. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 25(8): 681–695

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Giles M R, de Boer R B. 1990. Origin and significance of redistributional secondary porosity. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 7(4): 378–397

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Grigsby J D. 2001. Origin and growth mechanism of authigenic chlorite in sandstones of the lower Vicksburg Formation, South Texas. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 71(1): 27–36

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Hao Lewei, Liu Chang, Wang Qi, et al. 2011. Provenance characteristics of Huagang formation (Paleogene) in Xihu sag, East China Sea. Natural Gas Geoscience, 22(2): 315–323

    Google Scholar 

  14. Hsu S K, Sibuet J C, Shyu C T. 2001. Magnetic inversion in the East China Sea and Okinawa Trough: Tectonic implications. Tectonophysics, 333(1-2): 111–122

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Huang Sijing, Shi He, Zhang Meng, et al. 2002. Application of strontium isotope stratigraphy to diagenesis research. Acta Sedimentologica Sinica (in Chinese), 20(3): 359–366

    Google Scholar 

  16. Huang Sijing, Xie Lianwen, Zhang Meng, et al. 2004. Formation mechanism of authigenic chlorite and relation to preservation of porosity in nonmarine Triassic reservoir sandstones, Ordos Basin and Sichuan Basin, China. Journal of Chengdu University of Technology (Science & Technology Edition) (in Chinese), 31(3): 273–281

    Google Scholar 

  17. Hunt J M. 1990. Generation and migration of petroleum from abnormally pressured fluid compartments. AAPG Bulletin, 74(1): 1–12

    Google Scholar 

  18. Keith M L, Weber J N. 1964. Isotopic composition and environmental classification of selected limestones and fossils. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 28(10-11): 1787–1816

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Kelts K, Talbot M. 1990. Lacustrine carbonates as geochemical archives of environmental change and biotic/abiotic interactions. In: Tilzer M M, Serruya C, eds. Large Lakes. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer, 288–315

    Google Scholar 

  20. Li Shangqing, Li Chunjie. 2003. Analysis on the petroleum resource distribution and exploration potential of the Xihu Depression, the East China Sea. Petroleum Geology & Experiment (in Chinese), 25(6): 721–728

    Google Scholar 

  21. Macaulay C I, Haszeldine R S, Fallick A E. 1993. Distribution, chemistry, isotopic composition and origin of diagenetic carbonates; Magnus sandstone, North Sea. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 63(1): 33–43

    Google Scholar 

  22. McBride E F. 1989. Quartz cement in sandstones: a review. Earth-Science Reviews, 26(1-3): 69–112

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. McBride E F, Parea G C. 2001. Origin of highly elongate, calcite-cemented concretions in some Italian coastal beach and dune sands. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 71(1): 82–87

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Mu Shuguang, Zhang Yiming. 1994. Reservoirs pores evolution under the control of diagenesis and stage. Journal of Southwest Petroleum Institute (in Chinese), 16(3): 22–27

    Google Scholar 

  25. Osborne M J, Swarbrick R E. 1999. Diagenesis in North Sea HPHT clastic reservoirs-consequences for porosity and overpressure prediction. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 16(4): 337–353

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Pei Changrong. 2007. Authigenic carbonate mineral in the early tertiary sandstone of south central Xihu depression [dissertation] (in Chinese). Chengdu: Chengdu University of Technology.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Qiu Longwei, Jiang Zaixing. 2006. Alkaline Diagenesis of Terrigenous Clastic Rocks (in Chinese). Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1–2

    Google Scholar 

  28. Ren Zhengping, Bao Zhu, Qian Jianzhong. 1996. Features and controlling factors of sandstone reservoir in the south part of the Xihu depression. Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology (in Chinese), 16(1): 69–76

    Google Scholar 

  29. Rosenbaum J, Sheppard S M F. 1986. An isotopic study of siderites, dolomites and ankerites at high temperature. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 50(6): 1147–1150

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Rossi C, Marfil R, Ramseyer K, et al. 2001. Facies-related diagenesis and multiphase Siderite cementation and dissolution in the reservoir sandstones of the Khatatba Formation, Egypt’s Western Desert. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 71(3): 459–472

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Stroker T M, Harris N B, Elliott W C, et al. 2013. Diagenesis of a tight gas sand reservoir: upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group, Piceance Basin, Colorado. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 40: 48–68

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Su Ao. 2014. Controlling factors of oil and gas accumulation of central inversion tectonic belt in Xihu depression, east China sea basin [dissertation]. Wuhan: China University of Geosciences

    Google Scholar 

  33. Suess E, Whiticar M J. 1989. Methane-derived CO2 in pore fluids expelled from the Oregon subduction zone. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 71(1-2): 119–136

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Sun Yushan, Shen Yinmin, Xu Xun, et al. 2002. Properties by the analysis technique of the diagenetic lithofacies-taking Hadexun area in Tarim basin as an example. Acta Sedimentologica Sinica (in Chinese), 20(1): 55–60

    Google Scholar 

  35. Surdam R C, Crossey L J, Hagen E S, et al. 1989. Organic-inorganic interactions and sandstone diagenesis. AAPG Bulletin, 73(1): 1–23

    Google Scholar 

  36. Taylor K G, Gawthorpe R L, Curtis C D, et al. 2000. Carbonate cementation in a sequence-stratigraphic framework: upper Cretaceous sandstones, Book Cliffs, Utah-Colorado. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 70(2): 360–372

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Taylor T R, Giles M R, Hathon L A, et al. 2010. Sandstone diagenesis and reservoir quality prediction: models, myths, and reality. AAPG Bulletin, 94(8): 1093–1132

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Walker T R. 1960. Carbonate replacement of detrital crystalline silicate minerals as a source of authigenic silica in sedimentary rocks. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 71(2): 145–152

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Wang Guochun. 1989. Positive inverted structures in southwest of the East China Sea Basin. Oil & Gas Geology (in Chinese), 10(2): 137–144

    Google Scholar 

  40. Wang Qi, Hao Lewei, Chen GuoJun, et al. 2010. Forming mechanism of carbonate cements in siliciclastic sandstone of Zhuhai Formation in Baiyun sag. Acta Petrolei Sinica (in Chinese), 31(4): 553–558

    Google Scholar 

  41. Wang Qi, Shi Ji’an, Xue Lianhua, et al. 1999. Characteristics of fluidrock interaction in clastic reservoir controlled by evolution of diagenetic environment-taking the southwest depression of Tarim basin as an example. Acta Sedimentologica Sinica (in Chinese), 17(4): 584–590

    Google Scholar 

  42. Wang Qi, Zhuo Xizhun, Chen Guojun, et al. 2007. Characteristics of carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of carbonate cements in Triassic Yanchang sandstone in Ordos Basin. Natural Gas Industry (in Chinese), 27(10): 28–32

    Google Scholar 

  43. Wilkinson M, Darby D, Haszeldine R S, et al. 1997. Secondary porosity generation during deep burial associated with overpressure leak-off: fulmar Formation, United Kingdom Central Graben. AAPG Bulletin, 81(5): 803–813

    Google Scholar 

  44. Xu Junyuan, Zhang Lingyun. 2000a. Genesis of Cenozoic basins in northwest Paci?c Margin (2): linked dextral pull-apart basin system Oil & Gas Geology (in Chinese), 21(3): 185–190

    Google Scholar 

  45. Xu Junyuan, Zhang Lingyun. 2000b. Genesis of Cenozoic basins in northwest Paci?c Margin (3): tectonic evolution of post rifting period Oil & Gas Geology (in Chinese), 21(3): 287–292

    Google Scholar 

  46. Yang Shuchun, Hua Shengbiao, Cai Dongsheng, et al. 2004. Presentday heat flow, thermal history and tectonic subsidence of the East China Sea Basin. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 21(9): 1095–1105

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Ye Jiaren, Gu Huirong, Jia Jianyi. 2008. Petroleum geological condition and exploration potential of Xihu depression, East China Sea. Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology (in Chinese), 28(4): 111–116

    Google Scholar 

  48. Zaid S M, Al Gahtani F. 2015. Provenance, diagenesis, tectonic setting, and geochemistry of Hawkesbury Sandstone (Middle Triassic), southern Sydney Basin, Australia. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, 24: 72–98

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Zang Shaoxian, Ning Jieyuan. 2002. Interaction between Philippine Sea plate (PH) and Eurasia (EU) plate and its influence on the movement Eastern Asia. Chinese Journal of Geophysics (in Chinese), 45(2): 188–197

    Google Scholar 

  50. Zhang Xiulian. 1985. Relationship between carbon and oxygen stable isotope in carbonate rocks and paleosalinity and paleotemperature of seawater. Acta Sedimentologica Sinica (in Chinese), 3(4): 17–30

    Google Scholar 

  51. Zhang Liuping, Bai Guoping, Luo Xiaorong, et al. 2009a. Diagenetic history of tight sandstones and gas entrapment in the Yulin Gas Field in the central area of the Ordos Basin, China. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 26(6): 974–989

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Zhang Jianpei, Ge Heping, Qi Binwen. 2009b. Characteristics of authigenic kaolinite in sandstones of Xihu Sag and it’s impact on reservoir physical properties. Offshore Oil (in Chinese), 29(1): 1–8

    Google Scholar 

  53. Zhang Hu, Guo Yinghai, Zhao Zhigang, et al. 2014. Study on seam features and control factors of Huagang formation of Xihu depression in east sea. Coal Science and Technology (in Chinese), 42(11): 97–100

    Google Scholar 

  54. Zhang Xia, Lin Chunming, Cai Yuanfeng, et al. 2012. Pore-lining chlorite cements in lacustrine-deltaic sandstones from the upper Triassic Yanchang Formation, Ordos Basin, China. Journal of Petroleum Geology, 35(3): 273–290

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Zhong Dalai, Ding Lin, Ji Jianqing, et al. 2001. Coupling of the lithospheric convergence of west China and dispersion of east China in Cenozoic: link with paleoenvironmental changes. Quaternary Sciences (in Chinese), 21(4): 303–312

    Google Scholar 

  56. Zhou Zuyi, Jia Jianyi, Li Jiabiao, et al. 2002. Quantitative study on inversion structures in Xihu Depression, East China Sea: constraints from fission track analysis data. Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology (in Chinese), 22(1): 63–67

    Google Scholar 

  57. Zhu Yangming, Li Ying, Zhou Jie, et al. 2012. Geochemical characteristics of tertiary coal-bearing source rocks in Xihu depression, east China sea basin. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 35(1): 154–165

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Zhu Yangming, Zheng Xia, Liu Xinshe, et al. 2007. Stable carbon isotope of authigenetic calcite used in reservoirs to tracing the hydrocarbon migration. Natural Gas Industry (in Chinese), 27(9): 24–27

    Google Scholar 

  59. Zhu Rukai, Zou Caineng, Zhang Nai, et al. 2008. Diagenetic fluids evolution and genetic mechanism of tight sandstone gas reservoirs in Upper Triassic Xujiahe Formation in Sichuan Basin, China. Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, 51(9): 1340–1353

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Lewei Hao.

Additional information

Foundation item: The National Natural Science Foundation under contract Nos 41502142 and 41502110; the National Science and Technology Major Project under contract No.2016ZX05026-007-05; the Youth Innovation Promotion Association CAS.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Hao, L., Wang, Q., Guo, R. et al. Diagenetic fluids evolution of Oligocene Huagang Formation sandstone reservoir in the south of Xihu Sag, the East China Sea Shelf Basin: constraints from petrology, mineralogy, and isotope geochemistry. Acta Oceanol. Sin. 37, 25–34 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13131-017-1126-8

Download citation

Keywords

  • diagenesis
  • fluid evolution
  • Huagang Formation
  • Xihu Sag