Evolution of post-weaning skull ontogeny in New World opossums (Didelphidae)
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Quantification of mammalian skull development has received much attention in the recent literature. Previous results in different lineages have shown an effect of historical legacy on patterns of skull growth. In marsupials, the skull of adults exhibits high variation across species, principally along a size axis. The development keys of the marsupial skull are fundamental to understanding the evolution of skull function in this clade. Its generally well-resolved phylogeny makes the group ideal for studying macroevolution of skull ontogeny. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ontogenetic similarity is correlated with phylogeny in New World marsupials, so that developmental patterns are expected to be conserved from ancestral opossums. We concatenated our previously published ontogenetic cranial data from several opossum species with new ontogenetic sequences and constructed an allometric space on the basis of a set of comparable cranial linear measurements. In this ontogenetic space, we determined the degree of correspondence of developmental patterns and the phylogeny of the group. In addition, we mapped ontogenetic trajectories onto the opossum phylogeny, treating the trajectories as composite, continuously varying characters. Didelphids differed widely in the magnitude of skull allometry across species. Splanchnocranial components exhibited all possible patterns of inter-specific variation, whereas mandibular variables were predominantly allometrically “positive” and neurocranial components were predominantly allometrically “negative.” The distribution of species in allometric space reflected the compounded effect of phylogeny and size variation characteristic of didelphids. The terminal morphology of related species differed in shape, so their ontogenetic trajectories deviated with respect to that of reconstructed common ancestors in varying degree. Phylogeny was the main factor structuring the allometric space of New World marsupials. Didelphids inherited an ancestral constellation of allometry coefficients without change and retained much of it throughout their lineage history. Conserved allometric values on the nodes splitting placental outgroups and marsupials suggest a developmental basis common to all therians.
KeywordsDidelphidae Evolution Allometric disparity Skull ontogeny
We thank the curators who allowed the examination of the material under their care: Sergio Lucero of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales (MACN, Buenos Aires); Bruce Patterson and Bill Stanley of the Field Museum of Natural History (FMNH, Chicago); Kris Helgen, Darrin Lunde, and Linda Gordon of the Smithsonian Institution (USMNH, Washington, D.C.); Rob Voss and Eileen Westwig of the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH, New York); Joao Alves de Oliveira of the Museu Nacional Universidad Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); and Mario de Vivo of the Museu do Zoología Universidad do Sao Paulo (Brazil). Two anonymous reviewers improved the quality of this manuscript. This work was supported by the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Técnicas of Argentina (CONICET); the projects PICT2008-1798, PICT2012-1583, and PICT 2015-2389 of the Agencia Nacional de Promoción Científica y Tecnológica, Argentina (ANPCyT); and the National Research Foundation of South Africa.
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