The increasing number of percutaneous endovascular procedures in highly anticoagulated patients has increased the possibility of iatrogenic femoral artery pseudoaneurysm (IFAP). Ultrasound (US)-guided percutaneous thrombin injection is one of the feasible treatments; however, there are concerns about complications such as peripheral embolization. This study was performed to examine the efficacy and safety of treatment of IFAPs using a combination of percutaneous thrombin injection and intravascular balloon inflation. In this retrospective, single-center study, we analyzed 11 patients who developed and were treated for IFAPs from January 2017 through April 2020. The patients were treated with endovascular therapy (EVT) with percutaneous thrombin injection. The technique utilized fluoroscopic guidance to place a balloon at the neck of the IFAP, and the balloon was then inflated to prevent the inflow of blood to the aneurysm. We then performed US-guided thrombin injection. The mean age was 72.36 ± 10.43 years; mean body mass index (BMI) was 25.25 ± 3.18. All patients had hypertension, 72.7% were undergoing hemodialysis, and 54.5% used oral anticoagulant drugs. The mean aneurysm size was 24.34 ± 13.54 mm. The approach was transfemoral in ten patients and transradial in one patient. All procedures were successful, and there were no complications. The mean thrombin dose was 677.3 ± 410.7 IU; the total hemostatic time was 45.4 ± 24.9 min. In conclusion, the combination of percutaneous thrombin injection and endovascular balloon inflation was feasible and safe for the treatment of IFAPs. This technique may contribute to the treatment of IFAPs.
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We thank Andrea Baird, MD, from Edanz Group (https://en-author-services.edanzgroup.com/ac) for editing a draft of this manuscript.
This research received no specific grants from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Conflict of interests
The authors declare no potential conflicts of interest regarding the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.
All procedures were performed in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Asahi General Hospital.
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Hayakawa, N., Kodera, S., Miyauchi, A. et al. Effective treatment of iatrogenic femoral pseudoaneurysms by combined endovascular balloon inflation and percutaneous thrombin injection. Cardiovasc Interv and Ther (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12928-021-00764-9
- Endovascular procedures