Electrochemical Characterization of Melamine Electropolymerized in Deep Eutectic Solvents for Selective Detection of Dopamine

Abstract

We report here for the first time the polymerization of melamine in three different type III deep eutectic solvents (DESs), namely ethaline, glyceline and reline. The novel DESs functionalized polymelamine (PME-DESs) modified glassy carbon electrode was compared with conventional electrolytes including sulphuric acid and neutral Cl aqueous solution. The key effect of the potential window, the acidity of the electrolyte, concentration of melamine and Cl and the temperature of electrolyte on the polymerization of melamine have been further studied to choose the best PME-DESs. The selected PME(ethaline) was further incorporated with hydroxyl functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube (f-WMCNTs) and applied in selective sensing of dopamine. PME(ethaline)/f-MWCNTs/GCE demonstrated excellent electrocatalytic activity towards dopamine oxidation. The observed linear range for the detection of dopamine concentration, without interferences through differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), was from 1.0 μM to 1.0 mM (R2 = 0.9924), with a detection limit of 288 nM (S/N = 3). Studies proved that the modified electrode can be successfully applied for the quantitative determination of dopamine both with and without interferences.

Graphical abstract

Electrochemical characterization of melamine electropolymerized in deep eutectic solvents for selective detection of dopamine

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Funding

This work is financially supported by Impact Oriented Interdisciplinary Research Grant IIRG013B-2019 and RU Grant ST022-2020 by the Universiti Malaya.

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Correspondence to Pei Meng Woi.

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Chang, Y.H., Woi, P.M. & Alias, Y.B. Electrochemical Characterization of Melamine Electropolymerized in Deep Eutectic Solvents for Selective Detection of Dopamine. Electrocatalysis (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12678-021-00648-9

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Keywords

  • Deep eutectic solvent
  • New ionic solvent
  • Polymelamine
  • Electropolymerization
  • Ethaline