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Development and Validation of the Cognitive Behavioural Sati Scale (CBSS)

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A Correction to this article was published on 16 August 2023

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Evidence shows that mindfulness contributes to many health-related outcomes and may promote health-related behaviours by enhancing self-regulation. However, there is a lack of reliable and valid tools to measure both cognitions and behaviours associated with mindfulness practice in the Thai context. The aim of this study was to develop and validate the Cognitive Behavioural Sati Scale (CBSS), which is suitable for the Thai population.


The original 21 candidate items were identified by experts from conducting focus groups and included both newly developed items and items from existing measures. Selected items were administered to a sample of older adults (n = 318) living in the Bangkok metropolitan area, Thailand, and subjected to reliability and confirmatory factor analyses.


A hierarchical model with 3 factors (acceptance, awareness, and self-recollection) and the overarching second-order mindfulness factor demonstrated overall better fit indices compared to a hierarchical model with 2 factors (mindful behaviour and acceptance), which also achieved acceptable model fit. The full CBSS and its subscales showed good internal consistency as indicated by α = 0.70–0.86 and ω = 0.72–0.88.


These findings support reliability and internal validity of both hierarchical models with 3 and 2 facets meaning that overall mindfulness-based health behaviours can be measured using the total scale score as well as individual facets scores depending on assessment requirements in the Thai context. Future studies should examine the external reliability and validity of the CBSS with different sample populations to establish scale robustness.

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We would like to thank all participants in the community and special thanks to Yongyud Wongpiromsarn, PhD, MD; Assoc. Prof. Chatchawan Silpakit, PhD, MD; Assist. Prof. Lampu Kosulwit, PhD, MD; Assoc. Prof. Yaowarat Matchim, PhD. RN; Assoc.Prof. Dr. Kanvee Viwatpanich PhD.; and Assoc. Prof. Viwat Puttawanchai, MD, for advice on the project.


The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: The work was funded by the TUFT 21/2019 (Thammasat Fast Tract Fund), Thailand. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

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Authors and Affiliations



Pantip Sangprasert: conceptualization, methodology, data curation, writing — original draft preparation, supervision, critical reviewing and editing. Junya Pattaraarchachai: data analysis and interpretation, critical reviewing and editing. Srimung Parangrit: data collection, reviewing and editing. Sitthiphon Bunman: data collection, critical reviewing and editing.

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Correspondence to Pantip Sangprasert.

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Ethical Approval

Protocol and informed consent were approved by the third Allied Academic Group three in Health Science of Thammasat University Review Board (COA-099/2019).

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The authors declare no competing interests.

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The original online version of this article was revised to correct the spelling of the author Srimuang Palungrit and to update the affiliation of Junya Pattarrarchachai.

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Sangprasert, P., Pattaraarchachai, J., Palungrit, S. et al. Development and Validation of the Cognitive Behavioural Sati Scale (CBSS). Mindfulness 14, 2137–2144 (2023).

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