Advertisement

Mindfulness

, Volume 9, Issue 2, pp 610–617 | Cite as

Nurse Experience of Participation in a Mindfulness-Based Self-Care and Resiliency Intervention

  • Susan Slatyer
  • Mark Craigie
  • Clare Rees
  • Sue Davis
  • Tony Dolan
  • Desley Hegney
ORIGINAL PAPER
  • 755 Downloads

Abstract

Nursing is recognized as a stressful occupation where the incidence of negative outcomes such as burnout and high attrition has been well documented. Studies have consistently found that a higher level of resilience is related to retention in the nursing workforce. Mindfulness has been shown to lower levels of burnout and may play an important role in resilience to vicarious trauma. A brief mindful self-care and resiliency (MSCR) program aimed specifically at reducing compassion fatigue, and enhancing nurses’ resilience was piloted in a tertiary acute care hospital in Australia. This paper reports findings from the qualitative component of a mixed methods study which aimed to explore nurses’ responses to the MSCR program including its perceived feasibility, acceptability, and applicability. A sample of 20 nurses completed the MSCR program, of which 16 nurses (80% response) participated in individual unstructured interviews. Verbatim transcripts of the audio recorded interviews were subjected to thematic analysis. Five themes emerged that described participants’ perceptions of how the program benefitted nurses and its applicability in routine practice: Gaining perspective and insight; developing feelings of inner calm; taking time to care for self; feasibility and acceptability of the MSCR program; and using self-care strategies. The MSCR program was found to be feasible and acceptable from the perspective of nurse participants working in this acute care hospital. Fifteen nurses (94%) reported using mindful awareness and self-regulation after completing the program indicating that the strategies offered were practicable in this work setting.

Keywords

Resilience Nursing Mindfulness Qualitative research 

Notes

Author Contributions

SS: collaborated in data collection and implementation of the intervention, led data analysis, and wrote the paper. MC: collaborated with design of the study, developed and implemented the intervention, and contributed to writing and editing the manuscript. CR: oversaw the design and execution of the study and the writing and editing of the final manuscript. SD: wrote part of the methods. TD: collaborated with participant recruitment and editing of the final manuscript. DH: led the design and execution of the study, led data collection, collaborated in data analysis, and contributed to writing and editing the final manuscript.

Funding

The study was funded internally by the study hospital.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Funding

The study was funded internally by the study hospital.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

References

  1. American Psychological Association (2016). The road to resilience. Retrieved 05 Jan 2017, from http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/road-resilience.aspx.
  2. Andrews, D. R., & Wan, T. T. H. (2009). The importance of mental health to the experience of job strain: an evidence-guided approach to improve retention. Journal of Nursing Management, 17(3), 340–351.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2934.2008.00852.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Blomberg, K., Isaksson, A.-K., Allvin, R., Bisholt, B., Ewertsson, M., Kullen Engstrom, A., …. Gustafsson, M. (2016). Work stress among newly graduated nurses in relation to workplace and clinical group supervision. Journal of Nursing Management, 24(1), 80–87.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jonm.12274.
  4. Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77–101.  https://doi.org/10.1191/1478088706qp063oa.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chesak, S. S., Bhagra, A., Schroeder, D. R., Foy, D. A., Cutshall, S. M., & Sood, A. (2015). Enhancing resilience among new nurses: feasibility and efficacy of a pilot intervention. The Ochsner Journal, 15(1), 38–44.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Cope, V., Jones, B., & Hendricks, J. (2015). Why nurses chose to remain in the workforce: portraits of resilience. Collegian, 23(1), 87–95.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colegn.2014.12.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Corbin, J., & Morse, J. M. (2003). The unstructured interactive interview: issues of reciprocity and risks when dealing with sensitive topics. Qualitative Inquiry, 9, 335–354.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1077800403009003001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Corcoran, K. M., Farb, N., Anderson, A., & Segal, Z. V. (2010). Mindfulness and emotion regulation: outcomes and possible mediating mechanisms. In A. Kring & D. Sloan (Eds.), Emotion regulation and psychopathology: a transdiagnostic approach to etiology and treatment (pp. 339–355). New York: The Guildford Press.Google Scholar
  9. Craigie, M., Slatyer, S., Hegney, D., Osseiran-Moisson, R., Gentry, E., Davis, S., … Rees, C. (2016). A pilot evaluation of a mindful self-care and resilience (MSCR) intervention for nurses. Mindfulness, 7, 764–774.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-016-0516.x.
  10. Garland, E. L., Gaylord, S. A., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2011). Positive reappraisal mediates the stress-reductive effects of mindfulness: an upward spiral process. Mindfulness, 2(1), 59–67.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-011-0043-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gentry, J. E. (Producer) (2013). PowerPoint slides for compassion fatigue prevention and resilience (2012). pptx. Retrieved from http://www.compassionunlimited.com
  12. Good, D.J., Lyddy, C.J., Glomb, T.M., Bono, J.E., Brown, K.W., Duffy, M.K., … Lazar, S.W. (2016). Contemplating mindfulness at work: an integrative review. Journal of Management, 42(1), 114–142.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206315617003.
  13. Goodman, M. J., & Schorling, J. B. (2012). A mindfulness course decreases burnout and improves well-being among healthcare providers. The International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 43(2), 119–128.  https://doi.org/10.2190/PM.43.2.b.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Graneheime, U. H., & Lundmann, B. (2004). Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness. Nurse Education Today, 24(2), 105–112.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2003.10.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Health Workforce Australia (2012). Health workforce 2025: doctors, nurses and midwives – Volume 1. Retrieved from https://submissions.education.gov.au/forms/archive/2015_16_sol/documents/Attachments/Australian%20Nursing%20and%20Midwifery%20Accreditation%20Council%20(ANMAC).pdf.
  16. Hegney, D. G., Craigie, M., Hemsworth, D., Osseiran-Moisson, R., Aoun, S., Francis, K., & Drury, V. (2014). Compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, anxiety, depression and stress in registered nurses in Australia: study 1 results. Journal of Nursing Management, 22(4), 506–518.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jonm.12160.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Hegney, D. G., Rees, C. S., Eley, R., Osserain-Moisson, R., & Francis, K. (2015). The contribution of individual psychological resilience in determining the professional quality of life of Australian nurses. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1613.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01613.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Hodges, H. F., Troyan, P. J., & Keeley, A. C. (2010). Career persistence in baccalaureate-prepared acute care nurses. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 42(1), 83–91.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1547-5069.2009.01325.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Hooper, C., Craig, J., Janvrin, D. R., Wetsel, M. A., & Reimels, E. (2010). Compassion satisfaction, burnout, and compassion fatigue among emergency nurses compared with nurses in other selected inpatient specialties. Journal of Emergency Nursing, 36(5), 420–427.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jen.2009.11.027.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Hülsheger, U. R., Alberts, H. J., Feinholdt, A., & Lang, J. W. (2013). Benefits of mindfulness at work: The role of mindfulness in emotion regulation, emotional exhaustion, and job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 98(2), 310–325.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0031313.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Hunter, L. (2016). Making time and space: the impact of mindfulness training on nursing and midwifery practice. A critical interpretative synthesis. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 25(7–8), 918–929.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jocn.13164.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Kabat-Zinn, J. (1990). Full catastrophe living: using the wisdom of your body and mind to face stress, pain and illness. New York: Delta Trade Paperbacks.Google Scholar
  23. Kabat-Zinn, J. (2003). Mindfulness-based interventions in context: past, present, and future. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10(2), 144–156.  https://doi.org/10.1093/clipsy.bpg016.Google Scholar
  24. Khoury, B., Lecomte, T., Fortin, G., Masse, M., Therien, P., Bouchard, V., … Hofmann, S.G. (2013). Mindfulness-based therapy: a comprehensive meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 33(6), 763–771.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2013.05.005.
  25. Leiter, M. P., & Maslach, C. (2009). Nurse turnover: the mediating role of burnout. Journal of Nursing Management, 17(3), 331–339.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2834.2009.01004.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Lim, J., Bogossian, F., & Ahern, K. (2010). Stress and coping in Australian nurses: a systematic review. International Nursing Review, 57(1), 22–31.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1466-7657.2009.00765.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Newbury Park: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  28. Mackenzie, C. S., Poulin, P. A., & Seidman-Carlson, R. (2006). A brief mindfulness-based stress reduction intervention for nurses and nurse aides. Applied Nursing Research, 19(2), 105–109.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apnr.2005.08.002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. McVicar, A. (2016). Scoping the common antecedents of job stress and job satisfaction for nurses (2000–2013) using the job demands–resources model of stress. Journal of Nursing Management, 24(2), E112–E136.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jonm.12326.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. QSR International Pty Ltd. (2012). NVivo qualitative data analysis software (version 10) [computer software]. Doncaster Victoria: QSR International Pty Ltd..Google Scholar
  31. Rees, C. S., Breen, L. J., Cusack, L., & Hegney, D. (2015). Understanding individual resilience in the workplace: the international collaboration of workforce resilience model. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 73.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00073.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Roche, M. A., Duffield, C. M., Homer, C., Buchan, J., & Dimitrelis, S. (2015). The rate and cost of nurse turnover in Australia. Collegian, 22(4), 353–358.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colegn.2014.05.002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Ruths, F. A., de Zoysa, N., Frearson, S. J., Hutton, J., Williams, J. M. G., & Walsh, J. (2013). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for mental health professionals—a pilot study. Mindfulness, 4(4), 289–295.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-012-0127-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Segal, Z. V., Williams, J. M. G., & Teasdale, J. D. (2002). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  35. Southwick, S. M., & Charney, D. S. (2012). Resilence: the science of mastering life’s greatest challenges. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sveinsdottir, H., Biering, P. & Ramel, A. (2000). Occupational stress, job satisfaction, and working environment among Icelandic nurses: A cross-sectional questionnnaire survey. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 43(7), 875–889.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2005.11.002.
  37. Teasdale, J. D. (1999). Metacognition, mindfulness and modification of mood disorders. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 6(2), 146–155.  https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-0879(199905).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Thompson, R. W., Arnkoff, D. B., & Glass, C. R. (2011). Conceptualizing mindfulness and acceptance as components of psychological resilience to trauma. Trauma, Violence & Abuse, 12(4), 220–235.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1524838011416375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. van der Velden, A.M., Kuyken, W., Wattar, U., Crane, C., Pallesen, K.J., Dahlgaard, J., … Piet, J. (2015). A systematic review of mechanisms of change in mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in the treatment of recurrent major depressive disorder. Clinical Psychology Review, 37, 26–39.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2015.02.001.
  40. Vilardaga, R., Luoma, J.B., Hayes, S.C., Pistorello, J., Levin, M.E., Hildebrandt, M.J., . . . Bond, F. (2011). Burnout among the addiction counseling workforce: the differential roles of mindfulness and values-based processes and work-site factors. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 40(4), 323–335.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2010.11.015.
  41. Williams, J. M. G., & Penman, W. (2011). Mindfulness a practical guide to finding peace in a frantic world. London: Piatkus.Google Scholar
  42. Wolever, R. Q., Bobinet, K. J., McCabe, K., Mackenzie, E. R., Fekete, E., Kusnick, C. A., & Baime, M. (2012). Effective and viable mind-body stress reduction in the workplace: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 17(2), 246–258.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0027278.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Nursing ResearchSir Charles Gairdner HospitalPerthAustralia
  2. 2.School of Nursing, Midwifery and ParamedicineCurtin UniversityPerthAustralia
  3. 3.School of Psychology and Speech PathologyCurtin UniversityPerthAustralia
  4. 4.School of Nursing and MidwiferyThe University of Southern QueenslandToowoombaAustralia
  5. 5.School of NursingThe University of AdelaideAdelaideAustralia

Personalised recommendations