Advertisement

BioNanoScience

, Volume 8, Issue 1, pp 373–378 | Cite as

Alexithymia as a Predictor of Worse Prognosis in Postural Phobic Vertigo

  • Radiy Esin
  • Elena Gorobets
  • Oleg Esin
  • Ilshat Khayrullin
  • Liliya Sakhapova
  • Denis Martyanov
Article
  • 32 Downloads

Abstract

Alexithymia is regarded as a predictor of many chronic physical and neurological diseases, but it has not yet been regarded in connection with different types of dizziness, especially postural phobic vertigo. Patients with alexithymia have difficulties in describing their feelings and sensations; especially, it touches upon the description of neurological symptoms.

The authors examined 84 patients with postural phobic vertigo (PPV): in 14 patients, this disease developed as a result of Ménière’s disease (MD) (men—6, women—8, average age 42 ± 11 years); in 19 patients—as a result of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (men—9, women—10, average age 49 ± 13 years); in 17 patients—after ischemic stroke in the posterior circulation (men—9, women—8, average age—59 ± 7 years); and in 34 patients with presbiataxia who did not tolerate stroke (men—21, women—13, average age—64 ± 12 years). Diagnosis of alexithymia was carried out with the help of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS) (Russian-language version). According to the results of TAS, 46 patients did not have alexithymia (A− group), 8 patients were in the border zone, and 30 patients corresponded the criteria of alexithymia (A+ group). Patients from the border zone were not evaluated. The patients were prescribed anti-anxiety treatment (beta-phenyl-gamma-aminobutyric acid hydrochloride 250 mg three times a day for 3 weeks). All patients from A− group noted a good effect of treatment, and only in two patients from A+ group, the positive effect was registered. The results of the research show that alexithymia is a predictor of a more severe course of postural phobic vertigo, which requires the development of special approaches to the treatment of this disorder in patients with such cognitive modality. Testing on alexithymia is advisable for all patients with PPV complaints.

Keywords

Alexithymia Postural phobic vertigo Dizziness Toronto Alexithymia Scale Predictor Neurological disease 

Notes

Funding Information

The reported study was funded by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR) according to the research project no. 17-04-00575 (for Rady Esin, Elena Gorobets, Oleg Esin, Denis Martyanov) and supported by the program of competitive growth of Kazan Federal University (for Ilshat Khayrullin and Liliya Sakhapova).

References

  1. 1.
    Rae-Grant, A., & Weiner, H. (2008). Weiner and Levitt’s neurology (1st ed.p. 28). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Brandt, T., & Dieterich, M. (1986). Phobischer Attacken-Schwankschwindel, ein neues Syndrom. Münchener Medizinische Wochenschrift (1950), 128, 247–250.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Brandt, T., Dieterich, M., & Strupp, M. (2005). Vertigo and dizziness: common complaints. London: Springer-Verlag London Limited 147 p.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Staab, J. P., & Ruckenstein, M. J. (2003). Which comes first? Psychogenic dizziness versus otogenic anxiety. The Laryngoscope, 113(10), 1714–1718.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Staab, J. P., & Ruckenstein, M. J. (2005). Chronic dizziness and anxiety: effect of course. Archives of Otolaryngology – Head & Neck Surgery, 131(8), 675–679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    AA82.1 Persistent postural-perceptual dizziness. ICD-11 Beta Draft (Mortality and Morbidity Statistics). http://apps.who.int/classifications/icd11/browse/l-m/en#/http%3a%2f%2fid.who.int%2ficd%2fentity%2f2005792829.
  7. 7.
    Staab, J. (2012). Chronic subjective dizziness. CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology, 18, 1118–1141.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Esin, R. G., Khairullin, I. K. H., Mukhametova, E. R., & Esin, O. R. (2017). Persistent postural-perceptual dizziness. Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psihiatrii imeni S.S. Korsakova, 117(4), 28–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Taylor, G. J., Bagby, R. M., & Parker, J. D. A. (1997). Disorders of affect regulation: alexithymia in medical and psychiatric illnesses (p. 359). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press xxii.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sifneos, P. E. (1973). The prevalence of “alexithymic” characteristics in psychosomatic patients. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 22, 255–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Yuruyen, M., Akcan, F. E., & Batun, G. C. (2017). Alexithymia in people with subjective cognitive decline, mild cognitive impairment, and mild Alzheimer’s disease. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, 29(6), 1105–1111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Alfasi, D., & Soffer-Dudek, N. (2018). Does alexithymia moderate the relation between stress and general sleep experiences? Personality and Individual Differences, 122, 87–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lysaker, P. H., George, S., Chaudoin-Patzoldt, K. A., et al. (2017). Contrasting metacognitive, social cognitive and alexithymia profiles in adults with borderline personality disorder, schizophrenia and substance use disorder. Psychiatry Research, 257, 393–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ghiggia, A., Romeo, A., Tesio, V., et al. (2017). Alexithymia and depression in patients with fibromyalgia: when the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Psychiatry Research, 255, 195–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Yalbuzdağ, Ş. A., Şengül, İ., & Delibaş, D. H. Is alexithymia associated with high disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis? Journal of Clinical and Analytical Medicine, 8(5), 387–391.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Messina, A., Beadle, J. N., & Paradiso, S. (2014). Towards a classification of alexithymia: primary, secondary and organic. Journal of Psychopathology, 20(1), 38–49.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Esin, R., Gorobets, E., Galiullin, K., & Esin, O. (2014). Alexithymia—baseline trends of research. Z Nevrol Psikhiatr im SS Korsakova, 114(12), 148–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Starostina, E. G., Taylor, G. D., Quilty, L. K., Bobrov, A. E., Moshnyaga, E. N., Puzyreva, N. V., Bobrova, M. A., Ivashkin, M. G., Krivchikova, M. N., Shavrikova, E. P., & Bagby, R. M. (2010). Toronto scale of alexithymia (20 points): validation of the Russian version on a sample of therapeutic patients. Social and Clinical Psychiatry., 20(4), 31–38.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zigmond, A. S., & Snaith, R. P. (1983). The hospital anxiety and depression scale. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica., 67(6), 361–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hendryx, M. S., Haviland, M. G., & Shaw, D. G. (1991). Dimensions of alexithymia and their relationships to anxiety and depression. Journal of Personality Assessment, 56, 227–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mattila, A. K., Poutanen, O., Koivisto, A.-M., Salokangas, R. K. R., & Joukamaa, M. (2007). Alexithymia and life satisfaction in primary healthcare patients. Psychosomatics, 48(6), 523–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Esin, O., Gorobets, E., Khairullin, I., & Esin, R. (2017). Alexithymia as a predictor of chronic tension headaches. BioNanoScience, 7(2), 272–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gorobets, E., Esin, R., Kovaleva, Yu., Martyanov, D., Nikolaeva, N. (2016). The problems of pain description in patients with alexithymia. 3rd SGEM Conference on Psychology & Psychiatry, Sociology & Healthcare, Education: Conference Proceedings (Bulgaria, International Multidisciplinary Scientific Conferences on Social Sciences and Arts, 22–31 august 2016). – Bulgaria, 2016. – 1 (2): 1069–1076.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Clinical LinguisticsKazan Federal UniversityKazanRussia
  2. 2.Department of Russian Language and Applied LinguisticsKazan Federal UniversityKazanRussia
  3. 3.Department of Neurology and Manual TherapyKazan State Medical AcademyKazanRussia
  4. 4.Institute of Fundamental Medicine and BiologyKazan Federal UniversityKazanRussia

Personalised recommendations