Tribological Behavior of Additive Manufactured γ-TiAl by Electron Beam Melting


The present work investigated the dry sliding wear behavior of gamma titanium aluminide (γ-TiAl) alloy deposited by electron beam melting (EBM) additive manufacturing technique. The wear-testing parameters used are applied load and sliding velocity, with a constant sliding distance. The wear behavior of commercially available Ti–6Al–4V and Inconel 718 was also investigated for the comparative purpose. Results revealed that EBM-additive-manufactured γ-TiAl showed superior metallurgical bonding within the consecutive layers and formation of phases like γ, α2, and β which improved the microhardness and wear resistance compared with conventionally fabricated Ti–6Al–4V and Inconel 718, and EBM-additive-manufactured γ-TiAl showed higher wear resistance.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7


  1. 1.

    Rastkar A R, Shokri B, Wear264 (2008) 973.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Das G, Kestler H, Clemens H, Bartolotta P A, Jom56 (2004) 42.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Cheng J, Li F, Fu L, Qiao Z, Yang J, Liu W, Tribol Lett53 (2014) 457.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Cheng J, Yang J, Zhang X, Zhong H, Ma J, Li F, Fu L, Bi Q, Li J, Liu W, Intermetallics31 (2012) 120.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Cheng J, Yang J, Ma J, Bi Q, Zhang X, Fu L, Li F, Zhu S, Liu W, Tribol Lett46 (2012) 233.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Li C X, Xia J, Dong H, Wear261 (2006) 693.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Ramadoss R, Kumar N, Dash S, Arivuoli D, Tyagi A K, Indian J Eng Mater Sci21 (2014) 473.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Murr L E, Gaytan S M, Ceylan A, Martinez E, Martinez J L, Hernandez D H, Machado B I, Ramirez D A, Medina F, Collins S, Wicker R B, Acta Mater58 (2010) 1887.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Biamino S, Penna A, Ackelid U, Sabbadini S, Tassa O, Fino P, Pavese M, Gennaro P, Badini C, Intermetallics19 (2011) 776.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Hernandez J, Murr L E, Gaytan S M, Martinez E, Medina F, Wicker R B, Metallogr Microstruct Anal1 (2012) 14.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Löber L, Schimansky F P, Kühn U, Pyczak F, Eckert J, J Mater Process Technol214 (2014) 1852.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Gussone J, Hagedorn Y C, Gherekhloo H, Kasperovich G, Merzouk T, Hausmann J, Intermetallics66 (2015) 133.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Qu H P, Wang H M, Mater Sci Eng A466 (2007) 187.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Qu H P, Li P, Zhang S Q, Li A, Wang H M, Mater Des31 (2010) 2201.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Mohammad A, Al-Ahmari A M, Balla V K, Das M, Datta S, Yadav D, Janaki Ram G D, Mater Des133 (2017) 186.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Mohammad A, Alahmari A M, Mohammed M K, Renganayagalu R K, Moiduddin K, Materials (Basel)10 (2017) 211.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Standard test method for wear testing with a pin-on-disk apparatus, ASTM Standard, G 99.

  18. 18.

    Jeyaprakash N, Duraiselvam M, Aditya S V, Surf Rev Lett25 (2018) 1950009.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Ahmadi S M, Ashok Kumar Jain R K, Zadpoor A A, Ayas C, Popovich V A, IOP Conf Ser Mater Sci Eng293 (2017) 012009.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Muthukannan Duraiselvam.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Pradeep, G.V.K., Duraiselvam, M., Prasad, K.S. et al. Tribological Behavior of Additive Manufactured γ-TiAl by Electron Beam Melting. Trans Indian Inst Met 73, 1661–1667 (2020).

Download citation


  • Additive manufacturing
  • Electron beam melting
  • γ-TiAl
  • Ti–6Al–4V
  • Inconel 718
  • Wear