Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals

, Volume 71, Issue 7, pp 1759–1769 | Cite as

On characterization of Microwave and Conventional Cast Bulk Brass

  • M. Shashank Lingappa
  • M. S. Srinath
  • H. J. Amarendra
Technical Paper


Corrosive resistant nature of brass makes it suitable for wide applications. Processing of bulk metallic materials using microwaves is still immature. Brass is taken in bulk form and melted using a 900 W domestic microwave applicator operating at 2.45 GHz frequency and modified with a controller attachment. As-cast and as-received brass is characterized for metallurgical and mechanical properties. X-Ray Diffraction pattern analysis shows dominant presence of copper–zinc phase in as-cast brass. Surface morphology of the prepared specimens is studied under electron microscope. Tensile strength of microwave melted as-cast brass is 350.88 MPa in an average, which shows 2.5% improvement than the conventionally melted as-cast brass. Hardness of microwave and conventionally melted as-cast brass are found to be 153.3 and 149.9 Hv respectively, while that of as-received brass is found to be 131.1 Hv. It is observed from the present work that bulk metals can be processed using microwaves, which has resulted in enhancement of the mechanical properties.


Bulk Brass Microwave Irradiation Conventional Melting Casting Characterization 



This work was supported by the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE), Govt. of India [Ref. No.: 8-201/RIFD/RPS/POLICY-1/2014-15].


  1. 1.
    Moore A F, Schechter D E, and Morrow M S, Method and apparatus for melting of metals. US Patent 20,030,089,421 (2003).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bhattacharya M, and Basak T, Energy 97 (2016) 306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Clark D E, and Sutton W H, Ann Rev Mater Sci 26 (1996) 299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Singh S, Gupta D, Jain V, and Sharma A K, Mater Manuf Process 30 (2015) 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Nishitani T, Method for sintering refractories and an apparatus therefor. US Patent 4,147,911 (1979).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Roy R, Agarwal D, Cheng J, and Gedevanishvili S, Nature 399 (1999) 668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Leonelli C, Veronesi P, Denti L, Gatto A, and Iuliano L, J Mater Process Tech 205 (2008) 489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rajkumar K, and Aravindan S, J Mater Process Tech 209 (2009) 5601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gupta M, Leong W W, and Wong W L, Microwaves and Metals, Wiley, Singapore (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mishra R R, and Sharma A K, Composites: Part A 81 (2016) 78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sharma A K, Srinath M S, and Kumar P, Microwave joining of metallic materials. Indian Patent 1994/Del/2009 (2009).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Srinath M S, Sharma A K, and Kumar P, Mater Des 32 (2011) 2685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bansal A, Sharma A K, Kumar P, and Das S, J Mech Engg 2 (2012) 18.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Badiger R I, Narendranath S, and Srinath M S, J Manuf Process 18 (2015) 117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Srinath M S, Sharma A K, and Kumar P, J Manuf Process 13 (2011) 141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Das S, and Sharma A K, BARC Newsletter 329 (2012) 15.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gupta D, and Sharma A K, Surf Coat Tech 205 (2011) 5147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hebbale A M, and Srinath M S, J Mater Res Tech 5 (2016) 293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zafar S, and Sharma A K, Tribol Trans 58 (2015) 584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Singh S, Gupta D, and Jain V, Mater Des 111 (2016) 51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ripley E B, and Oberhaus J A, Indus Heat 72 (2005) 65.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chandrasekaran S, Basak T, and Ramanathan S, J Mater Process Tech 211 (2011) 482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mishra R R, and Sharma A K, Mater Des 112 (2016) 97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Shashank L M, Srinath M S, and Amarendra H J, Mater Today: Proc 4 (2017) 471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Indian Institute of Metals - IIM 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Shashank Lingappa
    • 1
  • M. S. Srinath
    • 2
  • H. J. Amarendra
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringMalnad College of EngineeringHassanIndia
  2. 2.Department of Industrial and Production EngineeringMalnad College of EngineeringHassanIndia

Personalised recommendations