Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals

, Volume 70, Issue 10, pp 2497–2508 | Cite as

Evaluation of Surface/Solution Interface on Carbon Steel in Contact with a Phosphonate-Based Ternary Corrosion Inhibitor System

  • D. Sarada Kalyani
  • S. Srinivasa Rao
  • K. Chaitanya Kumar
  • S. Roopas Kiran
  • B. Sreedhar
  • B. V. Appa Rao
Technical Paper


Results of studies on interface produced on carbon steel in chloride environment containing a new ternary corrosion inhibitor formulation are presented. The surface/solution interface was developed by immersing the carbon steel in a solution containing 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDP), Zn(II) and folic acid (FA). Polarization studies indicate that the formulation is capable of affecting both the partial reactions occurring on the metal surface. Impedance studies reveal that significant changes in surface/solution interface occur as inferred by enormous increase in charge transfer resistance in the medium containing the inhibitor system. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies infer presence of oxides of iron, hydroxides of iron and zinc as well as heteroleptic complex, [Fe(III), Zn(II)–HEDP–FA] in the surface film. Fourier transform infrared spectrum of the surface protective film supports the presence of these compounds in the surface film. Morphological and topographical features of the protected and unprotected metal surface recorded by scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope respectively are presented. Consolidating the results of all these studies, mechanistic aspects of corrosion inhibition are proposed.


Carbon steel Surface/solution interface Phosphonate Folic acid Electrochemical studies Synergism 


  1. 1.
    Telegdi J, Shaglouf M M, Shaban A, Karman F H, Betroti I, Mohai M, and Kalman E, Electrochim Acta 46 (2001) 3791.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gunasekaran G, Palaniswamy N, Appa Rao BV, Muralidharan VS, Electrochim Acta 42 (1997) 1427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sekine I, Hirakawa Y, Corrosion 42 (1986) 272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Awad H S, Corros Eng Sci Technol 40 (2005) 57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gonzalez Y, Lafont M C, Pebere N, Chatainier G, Roy J, Bouissou T, Corros Sci 37 (1995) 1823.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Felhosi I, Keresztes Zs, Karman F H, Mohai M, Bertoti I, Kalman E, J Electrochem Soc 146 (1999) 961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kalman E, in Proceedings of the 7th European Symposium on Corrosion Inhibitors (7SEIC), Ann. Univ. Ferrara, N. S., Sez. V (1990), p 745.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Appa Rao B V, Srinivasa Rao S, Venkateswara Rao M, Corros Eng Sci Technol 43 (2008) 46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Appa Rao B V, Srinivasa Rao S, Mater Corros 61 (2010) 285.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Srinivasa Rao S, Appa Rao B V, Roopas Kiran S, Sreedhar B, J Mater Sci Technol 30 (2014) 77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sarada Kalyani D, Srinivasa Rao S, Sarath Babu M, Appa Rao B V, Sreedhar B, Res Chem Intermed 41 (2015) 5007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sarada Kalyani D, Srinivasa Rao S, Chem Sci Rev Lett 2 (2014) 480.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Migahed M A, El-Rabiei M M, Nady H, Fathy M, J Environ Chem Eng 4 (2016) 3741.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hu Z, Meng Y, Ma X, Zhu H, Li J, Li C, Cao D, Corros Sci 112 (2016) 563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rajendran S, Appa Rao B V, Palaniswamy N, Bull Electrochem 17 (2001) 171.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pech-Canul M A, Bartolo-Perez P, Surf Coat Technol 184 (2004) 133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rajendran S, Appa Rao B V, Palaniswamy N, Anti-Corros Methods Mater 46 (1999) 23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yuan S J, Pehkonen S O, Corros Sci 49 (2007) 1276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pawar P, Gaikwad A B, Patil P P, Electrochim Acta 52 (2007) 5958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wang C T, Chen S H, Ma H Y, Hua L, Wang N X, J Serb Chem Soc 67 (2002) 685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bonnel A, Dabosi F, Deslovis C, Duprat M, Keddam M, Tribollet B, J Electrochem Soc 130 (1983) 753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Felhosi I, Telegdi J, Palinkas G, Kalman E, Electrochim Acta 47 (2002) 2335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Moulder J F, Stickle W F, Sobol P E, Bamben K D (eds), Handbook of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy: A Reference Book of Standard Spectra for Identification and Interpretation of XPS Data, Physical Electronics, Eden Prairie (1995).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Maroie S, Sally M, Verbist J J, Inorg Chem 18 (1979) 2560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Asami K, Hashimoto K, Shimodaira S, Corros Sci 16 (1976) 35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Moriarty B E, in Proc Corrosion, vol 89, New Orleans Convention Center, New Orleans, 1989, paper 612.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Nakayama N, Corros Sci 42 (2000) 1897.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ochoa N, Baril G, Moran F, Pebere N, J Appl Electrochem 32 (2002) 497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    El Azhar M, Traisnel M, Mernari B, Gengembre L, Bentiss F, Lagrenee M, Appl Surf Sci 185 (2002) 197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Meneguzzi A, Ferreira C A, Pham M C, Delamar M, Lacaze P C, Electrochim Acta 44 (1999) 2149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Cicileo G P, Rosales B M, Varela F E, Vilche J R, Corros Sci 41 (1999) 1359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Gunasekaran G, Chauhan L R, Electrochim Acta 49 (2004) 4387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Karman F H, Felhosi I, Kalman E, Cserny I, Kover L, Electrochim Acta 43 (1998) 69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Aramaki K, Corros Sci 45 (2003) 1085.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Barnard W, Ph. D. Thesis, Department of Chemistry, University of Pretoria, Pretoria (2009).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Amar H, Benzakour J, Derja A, Villemin D, Moreau B, Braisaz T, Tounsi A, Corros Sci 50 (2008) 124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Zhang J, Rana S, Srivastava R S, Misra R D K, Acta Biomater 4 (2008) 40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Felhosi I, Kalman E, Poczik P, Russ J Electrochem 38 (2002) 230.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Indian Institute of Metals - IIM 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Sarada Kalyani
    • 1
  • S. Srinivasa Rao
    • 1
  • K. Chaitanya Kumar
    • 2
  • S. Roopas Kiran
    • 3
  • B. Sreedhar
    • 4
  • B. V. Appa Rao
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryV. R. Siddhartha Engineering College (Autonomous)VijayawadaIndia
  2. 2.Corrosion and Fouling DivisionBharat Petroleum Corporate R & D CentreGreater NoidaIndia
  3. 3.Department of Physics, School of Advanced SciencesVIT UniversityVelloreIndia
  4. 4.Inorganic and Physical Chemistry DivisionIndian Institute of Chemical Technology (IICT)HyderabadIndia
  5. 5.Department of ChemistryNational Institute of Technology Warangal (NITW)WarangalIndia

Personalised recommendations