Interlayer Engineering on Friction Welded Titanium Tube to Stainless Steel Tube Plate by External Tool Process

  • C. Maxwell Rejil
  • S. Muthukumaran
  • C. Sharan
  • S. P. Gill
  • H. B. Dong
Technical Paper


Joining of titanium and stainless steel is challenging due to the formation of hard, brittle intermetallics. This study focuses on engineering ductile materials for joining transition metals. Friction welding of tube to tube-plate by an external tool, a novel solid state welding process was employed to join titanium tube and stainless steel tube plate. The interlayers engineered were copper, silver and Cu–Zn alloy. The micrographs revealed phase transformations in titanium tube and unaffected stainless steel base. Interface peak microhardness of 458 HV was observed for Ti/Cu–Zn/SS welded sample. The intermetallics formed were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy. A novel shear test procedure was developed to evaluate the maximum shear load. It was found that joints with silver as interlayer withstood the maximum shear load of 56 kN. The shear surfaces were further analyzed and investigated for fracture study.


Interlayer Friction welding Intermetallics Shear load Joint interface 



The authors acknowledge the support by Royal Academy of Engineering, the United Kingdom under higher education partnership program (Project No.: HEPI\1516\49). The authors are thankful to Dr. R. Sathiskumar, Department of Mechanical Engineering, CIT, Coimbatore for his support. The authors also acknowledge Mr. P. Rajesh Kannan, and Mr. P. Bhagat Singh, Research Scholars of Department of MME for their support to execute the work.


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Copyright information

© The Indian Institute of Metals - IIM 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Maxwell Rejil
    • 1
  • S. Muthukumaran
    • 1
  • C. Sharan
    • 2
  • S. P. Gill
    • 3
  • H. B. Dong
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Metallurgical and Materials EngineeringNational Institute of Technology, TiruchirappalliTiruchirappalliIndia
  2. 2.Department of Materials EngineeringIndian Institute of ScienceBengaluruIndia
  3. 3.Department of EngineeringUniversity of LeicesterLeicesterUK

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