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Characterisation of Minerals and Ores: On the Complementary Nature of Select Techniques and Beyond

  • Rakesh KumarEmail author
Overview

Abstract

This overview is written as a tribute to my teacher, Professor Arun Kumar Biswas who introduced me to the discipline of minerals characterisation over three decades back. The focus of the paper is on complementary nature of techniques used for mineralogical characterisation of ores, minerals and, intermediate and final products generated during processing. The subject matter is essentially covered in two parts. In the first part, a general outlook is given based on the research summary dealing with a wide spectrum of materials and processes investigated. The potential and limitations of some commonly used tools/techniques are highlighted. In the second part, specific examples are presented under different themes covering phase identification, quantification of phases, heterogeneity in ores, occurrence of minor elements and their reactivity, mechanically activated solids, and lastly, structure-leachability correlations.

Keywords

Mineralogy Characterisation techniques Heterogeneity in ores Mechanical activation Oxyhydroxide minerals Amorphous solids Structure-leachability correlations 

List of Symbols

α

Fractional conversion

ε, εc

Microstrain (by XRD)

Δc

Change in lattice parameter c, nm

AEM

Analytical electron microscope

AFM

Atomic force microscope/microscopy

Am

Degree of amorphisation

AMFA

Attrition milled fly ash

ASM

American Society for Metals

B or B-

Birnessite (0.7 nm phase)

Bj

Standardised partial regression coefficient for variable j

bo, bj

Parameters of regression equation

BSE

Back scattered electron mode in SEM

Bu or Bu-

Buserite (1 nm phase)

CFA

Classified fly ash

CFSE

Crystal field stabilisation energy

Co(C)

Cobalt doped in coprecipitation mode

COD

Crystal Open Database

d

Inter-planar spacing, nm

d10, d50, d90

Characteristic particle diameters, μm

DTA

Differential thermal analysis

E

Activation energy at fractional conversion α, kJ/mol

EDS

Energy dispersive spectrometry

EELS

Electron energy loss spectroscopy

EM

Electron microscope

ESCA

Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (same as XPS)

EXAFS

Extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy

FA

Fly ash

FFe

Fraction of iron leached

FR

Fraction of doped element R leached

FTIR

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

G or G-

Goethite

GGBFS

Ground granulated blast furnace slag

In

Doping in ion-exchange mode

IR

Infrared spectroscopy

IRS

Internal reflectance spectroscopy

j

Variable number

JCPDS

Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standards

LOI

Loss on ignition, wt. %

MCD

Micro crystalline dimension (by XRD), nm

MCD00l

MCD in <00l> direction, nm

MCDc

MCD in c- direction, nm

OM

Optical microscope/microscopy

PCA

Principal component analysis

PSD

Particle size distribution

QSEM

Quantitative scanning electron microscopy

QXRD

Quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis

R

Doped element (Ni/Co/Cu)

RFA

Raw fly ash

rxy

Binary correlation coefficient between variables x and y

SA

Surface area, m2/g

SAED

Selected area electron diffraction

SE

Secondary electron mode in SEM

SEM

Scanning electron microscope

SMILE

Simultaneous milling and leaching

SSABET

Specific surface area (BET), m2/g

SSAGeo

Specific surface area (geometrical), m2/g

STM

Scanning tunnelling microscope/microscopy

t

Time, min

T(m,n)

Nomenclature for manganese oxide minerals

TEM

Transmission electron microscope

TG

Thermogravimetric analysis

tMA

Milling time, min

VMFA

Vibratory milled fly ash

WDS

Wave length dispersive spectrometry

XANES

X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy

XAS

X-ray absorption spectroscopy

x or Xj

Independent variable

y

Dependent variable

XPS

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

XRD

X-ray diffraction

Z

Atomic number

Notes

Acknowledgements

The work reported in this paper is outcome of author’s collaboration with several of his mentors, colleagues and associates. The author would like to thank and express his gratitude for all of them, especially, Prof. S P Mehrotra, late Prof. P Ramachandra Rao (formerly Directors, CSIR-NML); Profs. R K Ray and T R Ramachandran (ex IIT Kanpur); Drs. Sanjay Kumar, T C Alex, S Srikanth, B Ravi Kumar, Swapan Das, late Samar Das, T Mishra, (CSIR-NML); and Dr. Pradip (TRDDC-TCS), Prof. Nirdosh K. Khosla (IIT Bombay) and Dr. Arup Gangopadhyay (Ford Motor Company). Support from Dr. K Muraleedharan (Director, CSIR-NML and CSIR-CGCRI) is gratefully acknowledged.

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© The Indian Institute of Metals - IIM 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CSIR-National Metallurgical LaboratoryJamshedpurIndia

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