Characterization and Pre-concentration of Low Grade PGE Ores of Boula Area, Odisha using Gravity Concentration Methods
- 178 Downloads
Platinum group elements (PGEs) are scarce in nature and have very limited deposits of economic importance world over. The deposits have very low tenor and require pre-concentration to recover the PGE values. Compared to world occurrences, only a few occurrences have been so far reported in India. Out of them, Boula-Nuasahi occurrence is one where PGE mineralization is confined to a narrow breccia zone and the grade is very low (<2 ppm). Ferrochromite and Base metal sulfides are two important hosts for this mineralization. Chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite are the main sulfide minerals present in this sample. Tremolite is the major silicate mineral followed by chlorite, enstatite and riebeckite. Chromite is the only primary oxide mineral present. Sudburyite and sperrylite are major PGE minerals. Other PGE minerals such as braggite, laurite, michenerite and testibiopalladite are also present. The PGE minerals exhibit associations with ferrochromite, sulfide and silicate. The minerals are of very fine size with the average size less than 20 micron. Very low grade and complex mineralogical attributes coupled with very fine size, make processing of this scarce resource very necessary and important. An attempt has been made to pre-concentrate the PGE values using different gravity separation techniques. A laboratory model KC-MD3 Knelson concentrator performed better compared to the others. The operating variables such as; G-force and fluidization pressure are varied to maximize the recovery and grade.
KeywordsPlatinum group elements Ferrochromite Base metal sulfides Mineralization Pre-concentration Recovery Boula area
The authors are thankful to the Director of CSIR-IMMT for his kind permission to publish this work. Sincere thanks are due to Dr. M. Satyanarayanan, Senior Scientist, CSIR-NGRI, Hyderabad and Mr. R. Saini, TO, IIC, IIT, Roorkee for their cooperation and support for PGE analysis by HR-ICP-MS and EPMA respectively. The financial assistances from Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and Ministry of Mines, GOI, New Delhi, in the form of research projects are highly acknowledged.
- 3.Vermaak C F, The platinum group metals-a global perspective, Mintek, Randburg (1995) p 247.Google Scholar
- 5.Jena M S, Studies on characterization and pre-concentration of PGE values from low grade chromite ores of Boula area, Odisha, Ph. D. Thesis, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad, India (2016), p 281.Google Scholar
- 7.Levin K J, Tredoux M, and Grabe PJ, An investigation of the geochemistry of the Middle Group of the eastern Bushveld complex, South Africa, Part 1—The chromitite layers. Appl Earth Sci: IMM Trans Sec B 118 (2009) 111.Google Scholar
- 8.US Geological Survey (USGS), Mineral Commodity Summaries (2015), p 120.Google Scholar
- 9.Planning commission, Govt. of India, Metals and Minerals—Strategy based upon the demand and supply for mineral sector. Report of sub-group-II of the working group on Mineral Exploration and development (other than coal and lignite) for the 12th five year plan, (2011) p 423.Google Scholar
- 10.Indian Bureau of Mines (IBM), Indian Minerals Year Book 2013 (Part: II), 52nd Edn, Nagpur, India (2015).Google Scholar
- 11.FICCI Mines and Metals Division, Development of Indian Mining Industry—The Way Forward, New Delhi (2013), p 120. www.ficci.com.
- 12.Petrov S V, Nazimova Yu V, and Bogdanovich A V, Applied PGE mineralogy and ore beneficiation of the Galmoenan Deposit, Northern kamchatka, in 11th Intl Platinum Symposium, 21–24 June, Ontario, Canada (2010). (http://11ips.laurentian.ca/ Laurentian/Home/Departments/Earth+Sciences/NewsEvents/11IPS/11IPSHome.htm?Laurentian_Lang=en-CA).
- 13.Petruk W, and Hughson M R, Image analysis evaluation of the effect of grinding media on selective flotation of two zinc–lead–copper ores. CIM Bull 70 (1977) 128.Google Scholar
- 14.Kaukonen R J, Luukkanen S, and Maksimainen T, Mineralogical investigations of small scale beneficiation tests of some sulfide poor PGE occurrences, in 11th Intl. platinum Symposium, 21–24 June, Ontario, Canada (2010). (http://11ips.laurentian.ca/ Laurentian/Home/Departments/Earth+Sciences/NewsEvents/11IPS/11IPSHome.htm?Laurentian_Lang=en-CA).
- 15.Kelvin M A, Sylvester P J, and Cabri L J, Characterization of PGE occurrences in the Ovoid of the Voisey’s Bay Ni-Cu-Co deposit, Labrador with applications to Mineral processing, in 11th Intl. Platinum Symposium, 21-24 June, Ontario, Canada (2010). (http://11ips.laurentian.ca/Laurentian/Home/Departments/Earth+Sciences/NewsEvents/11IPS/11IPSHome.htm?Laurentian_Lang=en-CA).
- 16.Freeman C, Mineral beneficiation of the platinum group elements: A review through the hand-lens. Eng Min J 3 (2003) 241.Google Scholar
- 17.Cabri L J, Relationship of mineralogy to the recovery of platinum-group elements from ores, (Ed) Cabri L J, Platinum Group Elements: Mineralogy, Geology, Recovery. Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 23, (1981), p 233.Google Scholar
- 18.Henley K J, Ore-dressing mineralogy: A review of techniques, applications and recent developments. Geol Soc S Afr, Special Publication 7 (1983) 175.Google Scholar
- 20.Cole S, and Ferron CJ, A review of the beneficiation and extractive metallurgy of the platinum-group elements, highlighting recent process innovations, (Ed) Cabri L J, The Geology, Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Mineral Beneficiation of platinum-group elements. Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Special Volume 54, (2002), p 811.Google Scholar
- 21.Sarkar B, Chandra Sekhar S, Das A, Advanced gravity separators—A review of state of the art technology, (Eds) Singh R, Das A, and Goswami N G, Advanced Gravity Separation. NML, Jamshedpur-831 007, India (2007), ISBN: 81-87053-54-7, p 57.Google Scholar
- 22.Ghose A K, Mining challenges of the 21st century. B. B. Dhar Mineral industries, APH publishing (2000), p 813.Google Scholar
- 23.Knelson B, Edwards R, Development and economic application of Knelson Concentrator in low grade alluvial gold deposits. In: The AusIMIM Annual Conference. Rotorua, New Zeeland (1990), March 18–21, p 123.Google Scholar
- 24.Knelson B, The Knelson Concentrator: metamorphosis from crude beginning to sophisticated world-wide acceptance. Miner Eng 5 (1992) 1091.Google Scholar
- 25.Laplante A R, A comparative study of two centrifugal concentrators. In: Proceedings of 24th Annual Meeting of Canadian Mineral Processors, Ottawa (1993), Paper No. 5.Google Scholar
- 26.Luttrell G H, Honaker R Q, and Phillips D I, Enhanced gravity separators: new alternatives for fine coal cleaning. In: 12th International Coal Preparation Conference. Lexington, KT (1995), p 281.Google Scholar
- 27.Laplante A R, Huang L, and Harris B G, The upgrading of primary gold gravity concentrates. In: Proceedings of 31th Annual Meeting of Canadian Mineral Processors. Ottawa (1999), p 211.Google Scholar
- 29.Majumder A K, and Barnwal J P, Performance evaluation of a Knelson concentrator to upgrade placer minerals. Inst Eng (I) J-MN, 91 (2011) p 1.Google Scholar
- 35.Robert P V D, Wyk Van E, and Palmer R, Concentration of the noble metals by a fire-assay techniques using NiS as the collector. Report No. 1371 (Natl Inst Metall, Johannesburg, S Africa), (1971) p 15.Google Scholar
- 40.Van Loon J C, and Barefoot R R, Determination of the precious metals selected instrumental methods. John Willey and Sons, Chicheter (1991), p 276.Google Scholar
- 41.Perry B J, Barefoot, R R, Van Loon, J C, Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the determination of platinum group elements and gold. Trends Anal Chem 14 (1995) 388.Google Scholar
- 42.Balaram V, Mathur R, Banakar V K, Hein J R, Rao C R M, Rao T G, and Dasaram B, Determination of the platinum-group elements (PGE) and gold (Au) in manganese nodule reference samples by nickel sulphide fire-assay and Te-co-precipitation with ICP-MS. Indian J Mar Sci 35 (2006) 9.Google Scholar