Mobility and source apportionment of As and heavy metals in the Taehwa River sediment, South Korea: anthropogenic and seasonal effects

Abstract

The river sediment is a sink for heavy metals flowed into a river from natural and anthropogenic sources. It can be a potential pollutant source in varying environmental conditions. The Taehwa River runs through Ulsan City with different geological terrains and different land uses. Hence, research on the determination of various factors affecting accumulation and mobility changes in heavy metals in the river sediment is important. The present research investigated the mineralogical compositions of the Taewha River sediment in addition to the distribution, speciation, sources, and contamination level of As and heavy metals. The sediment showed different mineralogical changes associated with flowing distance, indicating the influence of country rocks, comprising igneous rocks in the upper stream region and sedimentary rocks in the lower stream region, on mineral composition. The total concentrations of As and heavy metals in the sediment exhibited the order of Zn > Pb > Cr > Cu > Ni > As > Cd. The overall concentrations of As and heavy metals increased in the downstream region, albeit with varying degrees. According to the Environmental Protection Agency guideline for sediment pollution, including the index of pollution intensity (IPOLL) and the potential ecological risk index (RI), the sediment in the sampling stations was discovered to be polluted to varying degrees from anthropogenic activities. An abrupt increase in Pb, Zn, and Cd concentrations was observed at Station 3 in summer and fall, which was linked to the increased clay mineral content caused by seasonal and lithological changes. The sources of this increase can be attributed to a nearby industrial complex or the oxidation of sulfide minerals, which could be related to an abandoned amethyst mine. Sequential extraction studies show that potential toxicity varies for each metal. By comparison, metals such as Cr, Ni, and Cu with higher percentages in exchangeable fractions and fractions bound to carbonates can be highly toxic. The statistical analysis indicates that two groups of metals, one including Zn, Cd, and Pb and another including Cr, Ni, As, and Cu, had distinct origins.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

We’re sorry, something doesn't seem to be working properly.

Please try refreshing the page. If that doesn't work, please contact support so we can address the problem.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5

Data availability

Not applicable.

Code availability

Not applicable.

References

  1. Ali BNM, Lin CY, Cleophas F, Abdullah MH, Musta B (2015) Assessment of heavy metals contamination in Mamut river sediments using sediment quality guidelines and geochemical indices. Environ Monit Assess 187:4190

    Google Scholar 

  2. Chae JS, Choi MS, Song YH, Um IK, Kim JG (2014) Source identification of heavy metal contamination using metal association and Pb isotopes in Ulsan Bay sediments, East Sea, Korea. Mar Poll Bull 88:373–382

    Google Scholar 

  3. Charriau A, Lesven L, Gao Y, Leermakers M, Baeyens W, Ouddane B, Billon G (2011) Heavy metal behaviour in riverine sediments: role of organic matter and sulfides. Appl Geochem 26:80–90

    Google Scholar 

  4. Farkas A, Erratico C, Vigano L (2007) Assessment of the environmental significance of heavy metal pollution in surficial sediments of the River Po. Chemosphere 68:761–768

    Google Scholar 

  5. Fernández-Cadena JC, Andrade S, Silva-Coello CL, Iglesia RDL (2014) Heavy metal concentration in mangrove surface sediments from the north-west coast of South America. Mar Pollut Bull 82:221–226

    Google Scholar 

  6. Filgueiras AV, Lavilla I, Bendicho C (2004) Evaluation of distribution, mobility and binding behaviour of heavy metals in surficial sediments of Louro River (Galicia, Spain) using chemometric analysis: a case study. Sci Total Environ 330:115–129

    Google Scholar 

  7. Forghani G, Moore F, Lee S, Qishlaqi A (2009) Geochemistry and speciation of metals in sediments of the Maharlu Saline Lake, Shiraz, SW Iran. Environ Earth Sci 59:173–184

    Google Scholar 

  8. Hakanson L (1980) An ecological risk index for aquatic pollution control, a sedimentological approach. Water Res 14:975–1001

    Google Scholar 

  9. Hanif N, Eqani SAMAS, Ali SM, Cincinelli A, Ali N, Katsoyiannis IA, Tanveer ZI, Bokhari H (2016) Geo-accumulation and enrichment of heavy metals in sediments and their associated risks in the Chenab River, Pakistan. J Geochem Explor 165:62–70

    Google Scholar 

  10. He M, Zheng H, Huang X, Jia J, Li L (2013) Yangtze River sediments from source to sink traced with clay mineralogy. J Asian Earth Sci 69:60–69

    Google Scholar 

  11. Hong SJ, Kwon HO, Choi SD, Lee JS, Khim JS (2016) Arsenic speciation in water, suspended particles, and coastal organisms from the Taehwa River Estuary of South Korea. Mar Poll Bull 108:155–162

    Google Scholar 

  12. Hwang DW, Lee IS, Choi MK, Kim CS, Kim HC (2015) Evaluation of pollution level for organic matter and heavy metals in sediments around Taehwa River estuary. Ulsan Fish Aquati Sci 48:542–554

    Google Scholar 

  13. Kalender L, Uçar SÇ (2013) Assessment of metal contamination in sediments in the tributaries of the Euphrates River, using pollution indices and the determination of the pollution source, Turkey. J Geochem Explor 134:73–84

    Google Scholar 

  14. Karbassi AR, Monavari SM, Bidhendi GRN, Nouri J, Nematpour K (2008) Metal pollution assessment of sediment and water in the Shur River. Environ Monitor Assess 147:107–116

    Google Scholar 

  15. Kim WS, Shin HS, Lee SS (1988) Characterization of inclusions in amethysts from Eonyang, Korea. J Miner Soc Korea 1:83–93

    Google Scholar 

  16. Kim Y, Kirkpatrick RJ, Cygan RT (1996) 133Cs NMR study of cesium on the surfaces of kaolinite and illite. Geoch Cosmochim Acta 60:4059–4074

    Google Scholar 

  17. Kim Y, Kim BK, Kim K (2010) Distribution and speciation of heavy metals and their sources in Kumho River sediment, Korea. Environ Earth Sci 60:943–952

    Google Scholar 

  18. Krika A, Krika F (2018) Assessment of heavy metals pollution in water and sediments of Djendjen River, North Eastern Algeria. Pollution 4:495–502

    Google Scholar 

  19. Kwon HO, Son HS, Oh JY, Oh JE, Choi SD (2013) Monitoring and pollution assessment of heavy metals in the Taehwa River, Ulsan, Korea. J Korean Soc Environ Anal 16:212–219

    Google Scholar 

  20. Li XD, Cloes BJ, Ramsey MH, Thornton I (1995) Sequential extraction of soils for multi-element analysis by ICP-AES. Chem Geol 124:109–123

    Google Scholar 

  21. Louis Y, Garnier C, Lenoble V, Mounier S, Cukrov N, Omanović D, Pižeta I (2009) Kinetic and equilibrium studies of copper-dissolved organic matter complexation in water column of the stratified Krka River estuary (Croatia). Mar Chem 114:110–119

    Google Scholar 

  22. McBride MB (1994) Environmental chemistry of soils. Oxford University Press, New York, p 332

    Google Scholar 

  23. Mohiuddin KM, Ogawa Y, Zakir HM, Otomo K, Shikazono N (2011) Heavy metals contamination in water and sediments of an urban river in a developing country. Int J Environ Sci Technol 8:723–736

    Google Scholar 

  24. Müller G (1979) Schwermetalle in den sedimenten des Rheins—Veränderungen seitt 1971. Umschan 79:778–783

    Google Scholar 

  25. Olivares-Rieumont S, de la Rosa D, Lima L, Graham DW, Alessandro KD, Borroto J, Martınez F, Sanchez J (2005) Assessment of heavy metal levels in Almendares River sediments—Havana City, Cuba. Water Res 39:3945–3953

    Google Scholar 

  26. Ong MC, Menier D, Shazili NAM, Kamaruzzaman BY (2013) Geochemical characteristics of heavy metals concentration in sediments of Quiberon Bay Waters, South Brittany, France. Orient J Chem 29:39–45

    Google Scholar 

  27. Pagnanelli F, Moscardini E, Giuliano V, Toro L (2004) Sequential extraction of heavy metals in river sediments of an abandoned pyrite mining area: pollution detection and affinity series. Environ Pollut 132:189–201

    Google Scholar 

  28. Paik IS, Kim HJ (2006) Playa lake and sheetflood deposits of the Upper Cretaceous Jindong Formation, Korea: Occurrences and paleoenvironments. Sediment Geol 187:83–103

    Google Scholar 

  29. Pandey J, Singh R (2017) Heavy metals in sediments of Ganga River: up-and downstream urban influences. Appl Water Sci 7:1669–1678

    Google Scholar 

  30. Patel P, Raju NJ, Reddy BCSR, Suresh U, Sankar DB, Reddy TVK (2018) Heavy metal contamination in river water and sediments of the Swarnamukhi River Basin, India: risk assessment and environmental implications. Environ Geochem Health 40:609–623

    Google Scholar 

  31. Relić D, Đorđević D, Popović A, Blagojević T (2005) Speciations of heavy metals in the Danube alluvial sediments within an oil refinery. Environ Int 31:661–669

    Google Scholar 

  32. Reza R, Singh G (2010) Heavy metal contamination and its indexing approach for river water. Int J Environ Sci Technol 7:785–792

    Google Scholar 

  33. Rodríguez-Barroso MR, García-Morales JL, Coello Oviedo MD, Quiroga Alonso JM (2010) An assessment of heavy metal contamination in surface sediment using statistical analysis. Environ Monit Assess 163:489–501

    Google Scholar 

  34. Salam MA, Kabir MM, Yee LF, Rak ALE, Khan MS (2019) Water quality assessment of Perak River, Malaysia. Pollution 5:637–648

    Google Scholar 

  35. Salati S, Moore F (2010) Assessment of heavy metal concentration in the Khoshk River water and sediment, Shiraz, Southwest Iran. Environ Monit Assess 164:677–689

    Google Scholar 

  36. Sharmin S, Zakir HM, Shikazono N (2010) Fractionation profile and mobility pattern of heavy metals in sediments of Nomi River, Tokyo, Japan. J Soil Sci Environ Manag 1:001–014

    Google Scholar 

  37. Shen F, Mao L, Sun R, Du J, Tan Z, Ding M (2019) Contamination evaluation and source identification of heavy metals in the sediments from the Lishui River watershed, Southern China. Int J Environ Res Public Health 16:336

    Google Scholar 

  38. Shikazono N, Tatewaki K, Mohiuddin KM, Nakano T, Zakir HM (2012) Sources, spatial variation, and speciation of heavy metals in sediments of the Tamagawa River in Central Japan. Environ Geochem Health 34:13–26

    Google Scholar 

  39. Singh M (2001) Heavy metal pollution in freshly deposited sediments of the Yamuna River (the Ganga river tributary): a case study from Delhi and Agra urban centres India. Environ Geol 40:664–671

    Google Scholar 

  40. Singh P (2010) Geochemistry and provenance of stream sediments of the Ganga River and its major tributaries in the Himalayan region, India. Chem Geol 269:220–236

    Google Scholar 

  41. Singh KP, Mohan D, Singh VK, Malik A (2005) Studies on distribution and fractionation of heavy metals in Gomti river sediments: a tributary of the Ganes, India. J Hydrol 312:14–27

    Google Scholar 

  42. Suthar S, Nema AK, Chabukdhara M, Gupta SK (2009) Assessment of metals in water and sediments of Hindon River, India: impact of industrial and urban discharges. J Hazard Mater 171:1088–1095

    Google Scholar 

  43. Tamim U, Khan R, Jolly YN, Fatema K, Das S, Naher K, Islam MA, Islam SMA, Hossain SM (2016) Elemental distribution of metals in urban river sediments near an industrial effluent source. Chemosphere 155:509–518

    Google Scholar 

  44. Tessier A, Campbell PGC, Bisson M (1979) Sequential extraction procedure for the speciation of particulate heavy metals. Anal Chem 1:851–888

    Google Scholar 

  45. Waheed S, Malik RN, Jahan S (2013) Health risk from As contaminated fish consumption by population living around River Chenab, Pakistan. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 36:579–587

    Google Scholar 

  46. Weber P, Behr ER, Knorr CDL, Vendruscolo DS, Flores EMM, Dressler VL, Baldisserotto B (2013) Metals in the water, sediment, and tissues of two fish species from different trophic levels in a subtropical Brazilian river. Microchem J 106:61–66

    Google Scholar 

  47. Yu GB, Liu Y, Yu S, Wu SC, Leung AOW, Luo XS, Wong MH (2011) Inconsistency and comprehensiveness of risk assessments for heavy metals in urban surface sediments. Chemosphere 85:1080–1087

    Google Scholar 

  48. Zhang C, Yu Z, Zeng G, Jiang M, Yang Z, Cui F, Zhu M, Shen L, Hu L (2014) Effects of sediment geochemical properties on heavy metal bioavailability. Environ Int 73:270–281

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Funding

This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korean government (MSIT) (No. 2019R1A2C1002254).

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Yeongkyoo Kim.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Shin, JH., Jo, DH. & Kim, Y. Mobility and source apportionment of As and heavy metals in the Taehwa River sediment, South Korea: anthropogenic and seasonal effects. Environ Earth Sci 80, 79 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-021-09371-6

Download citation

Keywords

  • River sediment
  • Heavy element
  • Sequential extraction
  • Index of pollution intensity (I POLL)
  • Ecological risk index (Er)