Study on the effect of water on electromagnetic radiation characteristics of fractured sandstone under load

Abstract

A large number of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) signals are released during loading failure of rock mass, and these signals which contain complex and abundant fracture information can provides precursor of rock mass instability. In order to investigate the effect of water on the EMR characteristics of fractured sandstone, a uniaxial compression experiment was performed on the dried and saturated sandstone samples with prefabricated parallel double cracks. The EMR signals during loading failure of rock samples were acquired and their mechanical properties and EMR signal characteristics were analyzed. Besides, the precursor of rock sample instability was extracted based on the critical slowing down theory. The experimental results show that compared with the dried rock sample, the saturated rock sample has lower compressive strength, starts to crack earlier, and exhibits a more complicated failure mode. During the loading failure of rock samples, their EMR signals respond well to the fracturing and damage. The cumulative number of pulses of saturated rock sample grows uniformly, while that of dried rock sample show a “gentle-violent” rising mode. Moreover, the cumulative number of pulses of dried rock sample is greater than that of saturated rock sample. Water reduces the crack initiation stress level, and the saturated rock sample is the first to experience a sudden jump of EMR pulse. With the increase of the loading stress, the dominant frequency of EMR gradually transitions from low frequency to high frequency. Compared with dried rock samples, saturated rock samples have a lower proportion of high-frequency signals. Since the dominant mechanism of EMR varies with the change of failure stage, water first promotes the EMR signals of rock samples in the early stage of loading; then, it weakens the EMR signals in the middle and late stages of loading. Based on the critical slowing down theory, the EMR pulse signals were analyzed, which conduces to the extraction of potential precursor of rock sample failure and instability. Compared with dried rock samples, the precursory characteristic of saturated rock sample is more obvious. The research results provide some guidance for the stability of water-bearing fractured rock mass and the monitoring and early warning of related geological hazards.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9

Abbreviations

σc :

Uniaxial compressive strength

c v :

Coefficient of variation

s:

Standard deviation

μ:

Average

pH :

Pore water pressure

c p :

Rock cohesion

σ1 :

Vertical stress

σ2 :

Horizontal stress

θ:

Angle between Side B of tip and vertical line

y :

Angle between Side A of tip and horizontal line

β:

Angle between crack tips

K:

Cohesion attenuation coefficient

s2 :

Variance

xi :

Data sequence

n:

Number of data in the sample

j:

Lag step

α(j):

The autocorrelation coefficient with j

yn :

Deviation

εn :

A random quantity that conforms to a normal distribution

λ:

Recovery rate

∆t:

State variable existence period

α:

Autocorrelation coefficient

References

  1. Bai H, Ma D, Chen ZQ (2013) Mechanical behavior of groundwater seepage in karst collapse pillars. Eng Geol 164:101–106

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Cheng Z, Meng ZY, Feng ZC, Chong B (2018) Cracking processes and coalescence modes in rock-like specimens with two parallel pre-existing cracks. Rock Mech Rock Eng 51(11):3377–3393

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Dou LM, He XQ, Wang EY (2004) Electromagnetic emission technique of monitoring rock burst and its application. J China Coal Soc 29(4):396–399

    Google Scholar 

  4. Eccles D, Sammonds PR, Clint OC (2005) Laboratory studies of electrical potential during rock failure. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 42(7–8):933–949

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Enomoto Y, Hashimoto H (1990) Emission of charged particles from indentation fracture of rocks. Nature 346:641–643

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Frid V, Vozoff K (2005) Electromagnetic radiation induced by mining rock failure. Int J Coal Geol 64(1–2):57–65

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Frid V, Rabinovitch A, Bahat D (2003) Fracture induced electromagnetic radiation. J Phys D Appl Phys 36(13):1620–1628

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Gopalakrishnan EA, Sharma Y, John T, Dutta PS, Sujith RI (2016) Early warning signals for critical transitions in a thermoacoustic system. Scient Rep 6:35310

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. He Y, Zhao MJ, Yang YP, Long TH (2011) Influence of intermittent saturation on mechanical properties of sandstone. J Chongq Jiaotong Univ (Nat Sci) 30(6):1359–1362

    Google Scholar 

  10. Hu SB, Wang EY, Li ZH, Shen RX, Liu J (2014) Nonlinear dynamic characteristics of electromagnetic radiation during loading coal. J China Univ Mining Technol 43(3):380–387

    Google Scholar 

  11. Kong B, Wang EY, Li ZH, Lu W (2019) Study on the feature of electromagnetic radiation under coal oxidation and temperature rise based on multi-fractal theory. Fractals 27(3):1950038–1950114

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Lee H, Jeon S (2011) An experimental and numerical study of fracture coalescence in pre-cracked specimens under uniaxial compression. Int J Solids Struct 48(6):979–999

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Li P, Liu J, Li GH, Zhu JB, Liu SG (2011) Experimental study for shear strength characteristics of sandstone under water-rock interaction effects. Rock Soil Mech 32(2):380–386

    Google Scholar 

  14. Li H, Bai HB, Wu JJ et al (2017) A method for prevent water inrush from karst collapse column: a case study from Sima mine. China Environ Earth Sci 76(14):493

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Li DX, Wang EY, Li ZH, Jia HS, Wang DM, Kong XG, Wang XR, Wang XY (2018) A causal mechanism for anomalous electromagnetic radiations from coal and rock failure[J]. Geophysics 83(6):E423–E434

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Lin ML, Jeng FS, Tsai LS, Huang TH (2005) Wetting weakening of tertiary sandstones-microscopic mechanism. Environ Geol 48(2):265–275

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Liu YZ, Liu Y, Wang YS, Jin AZ, Fu JM, Cao JP (1997) Influencing factors and mechanism of electromagnetic radiation when rock breaks. Acta Seismol Sin 19(4):83–90

    Google Scholar 

  18. Luo SL, Jin XG, Huang D (2019) Long-term coupled effects of hydrological factors on kinematic responses of a reactivated landslide in the three gorges reservoir. Eng Geol 261:10527

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Ma CQ, Li HZ, Niu Y (2018) Experimental study on damage failure mechanical characteristics and crack evolution of water-bearing surrounding rock. Environ Earth Sci 77(1):23

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Meng ZP, Li GQ, Xie XT (2012) A geological assessment method of floor water inrush risk and its application. Eng Geol 143–144:51–60

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Nitsan U (1977) Electromagnetic emission accompanying fracture of quartz-bearing rocks. Geophys Res Lett 4(8):333–336

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Ogawa T, Oike K (1985) Electromagnetic radiation from rocks. Geophys Res 90(D4):6245–6249

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Roy DG, Singh TN, Kodikara J, Das R (2017) Effect of water saturation on the fracture and mechanical properties of sedimentary rocks. Rock Mech Rock Eng 50(10):2585–2600

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Scheffer M, Carpenter S, Foley JA, Folke C, Walker B (2001) Catastrophic shifts in ecosystems. Nature 413(6856):591–596

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Scheffer M, Bascompte J, Brock WA, Brovkin V, Carpenter SR, Dakos V (2016) Early-warning signals for critical transitions. Nature 6(7260):53–59

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Schubnel A, Benson PM, Thompson BD, Hazzard JF, Young RP (2006) Quantifying damage, saturation and anisotropy in cracked rocks by inverting elastic wave velocities. Pure Appl Geophys 163(5–6):947–973

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Shen RX, Li HR, Wang EY, Li DX, Hou ZH, Zhang X, Han X (2019) Mechanical behavior and AE and EMR characteristics of natural and saturated coal samples in the indirect tensile process. J Geophys Eng 16:753–763

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Song XY, Li ZH, Wang EY (2016) Charging characteristics of the crack propagation of rock under load. J China Coal Soc 41(8):1941–1945

    Google Scholar 

  29. Sun HY, Wong LNY, Shang YQ, Shen YJ, Lv Q (2010) Evaluation of drainage tunnel effectiveness in landslide control. Landslides 7:445–454

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Verstrynge E, Adriaens R, Elsen J, Balen KV (2014) Multi-scale analysis on the influence of moisture on the mechanical behavior of ferruginous sandstone. Constr Build Mater 54:78–90

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Wang EY (2009) Coal and rock electromagnetic radiation technology and its application. Science Press, Beijing

    Google Scholar 

  32. Wang EY, He XQ (2000) Experimental study on electromagnetic radiation of coal rock deformation and rupture. Chinese J Geophys 43(1):131–137

    Google Scholar 

  33. Wang X, Tian LG (2018) Mechanical and crack evolution characteristics of coal-rock under different fracture-hole conditions: a numerical study based on particle flow code. Environ Earth Sci 77(8):297

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Wang EY, He XQ, Wei JP, Nie BS, Song DZ (2011) Electromagnetic emission graded warning model and its applications against coal rock dynamic collapses. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 48:556–564

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Wang EY, He XQ, Liu XF, Xu WQ (2012) Comprehensive monitoring technique based on electromagnetic radiation and its applications to mine pressure. Saf Sci 50(4):885–893

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Wang EY, Li ZH, He XQ, Chen L (2014) Application and pre-warning technology of coal and gas outburst by electromagnetic radiation. Coal Sci Technol 42(6):53–148

    Google Scholar 

  37. White JM, Mazurkiewicz M (1989) Effect of moisture content on mechanical properties of nemo coal, moberly missouri USA. Mining Sci Technol 9(2):181–185

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Yang SQ, Jing HW (2011) Strength failure and crack coalescence behavior of brittle sandstone samples containing a single fissure under uniaxial compression. Int J Fract 168(2):227–250

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Yang SQ, Dai YH, Han LJ, Jin ZQ (2009) Experimental study on mechanical behavior of brittle marble samples containing different flaws under uniaxial compression. Eng Fract Mech 76(12):1833–1845

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Zhou ZL, Cai X, Ma D, Cao WZ, Chen Lu, Jing Z (2018) Effects of water content on fracture and mechanical behavior of sandstone with a low clay mineral content. Eng Fract Mech 193:47–65

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

We gratefully acknowledge the financial support for this work provided by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(52074276), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2019XKQYMS55). We thank reviewers for their comments and suggestions to improve the manuscripts.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Rongxi Shen or Taixun Li.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Shen, R., Li, T., Li, H. et al. Study on the effect of water on electromagnetic radiation characteristics of fractured sandstone under load. Environ Earth Sci 80, 87 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-020-09338-z

Download citation

Keywords

  • Fractured sandstone
  • Water
  • Failure mode
  • EMR
  • Time–frequency characteristics
  • Precursor