Advertisement

Soil thermal behavior in different moisture condition: an overview of ITER project from laboratory to field test monitoring

  • Eloisa Di Sipio
  • David Bertermann
Thematic Issue
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. NovCare - Novel Methods for Subsurface Characterization and Monitoring: From Theory to Practice

Abstract

The thermal properties of soils can be considered one of the most important parameters for many engineering projects designing. In detail, the thermal conductivity plays a fundamental role when dimensioning ground heat exchangers, especially very shallow geothermal (VSG) systems, interesting the first 2 m of depth from the ground level. However, the determination of heat transfer in soils is difficult to estimate, because depends on several factors, including, among others, particle size, density, water content, mineralogy composition, ground temperature, organic matter. The performance of a VSG system, as horizontal collectors or special forms, is strongly correlated to the kind of sediment at disposal and suddenly decreases in case of dry-unsaturated conditions in the surrounding soil. Therefore, a better knowledge of the relationship between thermal conductivity and water content is required for understanding the VSG systems behavior in saturated and unsaturated conditions. Key challenge of ITER project, funded by European Union, is to understand how to enhance the heat transfer of the sediments surrounding the pipes, taking into account the interactions between the soil, the horizontal heat exchangers and the surrounding environment. In detail, changes of soil moisture content in the same climatic conditions and under the same thermal stress for five different soil mixtures have been monitored in the ITER test site. The relationship with precipitation and natural/induced ground temperature variations, reaching also water freezing point, are here discussed.

Keywords

Soil Water content Soil freezing Thermal conductivity Very shallow geothermal energy Geothermal helical heat exchangers 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the European Union. ITER project (http://iter-geo.eu/) has received funding from the European Union’s Framework Program for Research and Innovation Horizon 2020 (2014–2020) under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie Grant Agreement No. [661396-ITER]. Special thanks to REHAU AG&Co and Fischer Spezialbaustoffe Gmbh companies and their representative Ing. Mario Psyk and Mr. Thomas Popp for their valuable support. We thank Hans Schwarz and Johannes Müller of the University of Erlangen for assisting in laboratory and field tests data acquisition and Giordano Teza of the University of Padua for the review of the systematic error description.

References

  1. Anbergen H, Frank J, Müller L, Sass I (2014) Freeze-Thaw-cycles on borehole heat exchanger grouts: impact on the hydraulic properties. Geotech Test J 37(4):20130072.  https://doi.org/10.1520/gtj20130072 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bayerischen Geologischen Landesamt (1971) Geologischen Karte von Bayern 1:25 000, Blatt Nr. 6431 Herzogenaurach (Geological Map of Bavaria 1:25 000, Sheet Nr. 6431 Herzogenaurach)Google Scholar
  3. Bertermann D, Klug H, Morper-Busch L, Bialas C (2014) Modelling vSGPs (very shallow geothermal potentials) in selected CSAs (case study areas). Energy 71:226–244.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2014.04.054 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bertermann D, Klug H, Morper-Busch L (2015) A pan-European planning basis for estimating the very shallow geothermal energy potentials. Renew Energ 75:335–347.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2014.09.03 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Casasso A, Piga B, Sethi R, Prestor J, Pestotnik S, Bottig M, Goetzl G, Zambelli P, D’Alonzo V, Vaccaro R, Capodaglio P, Olmedo M, Baietto A, Maragna Boettcher F, Zoesseder K (2017) The GRETA project: the contribution of near-surface geothermal energy for the energetic self-sufficiency of Alpine regions. Ital J Groundw 6(1):1–11.  https://doi.org/10.7343/as-2017-265 Google Scholar
  6. Congedo PM, Colangelo G, Starace G (2012) CFD simulations of horizontal ground heat exchangers: a comparison among different configurations. Appl Therm Eng 33:24–32.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2011.09.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dalla Santa G, Galgaro A, Tateo F, Cola S (2016) Induced thermal compaction in cohesive sediments around a borehole heat exchanger: laboratory tests on the effect of pore water salinity. Environ Earth Sci 75:181.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-015-4952-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Decagon Devices Inc (2016a) 10HS Soil Moisture Sensor. Decagon Operator’s Manual. http://manuals.decagon.com/Manuals/13508_10HS_Web.pdf. Accessed 13 Oct 2017
  9. Decagon Devices Inc (2016b) MAS-1 4-20 mA Soil Moisture Sensor. Decagon Operator’s Manual. http://manuals.decagon.com/Manuals/13678_MAS-1_Web.pdf. Accessed 13 Oct 2017
  10. Deutscher Wetterdienst (2016). http://www.dwd.de. Accessed 15 Oct 2017
  11. Di Sipio E, Bertermann B (2017a) Influence of different moisture and load conditions on heat transfer within soils in very shallow geothermal application: an overview of ITER Project. In: Proceedings, 42nd Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California, February, 13–15, 2017, pp 1345–1353, SGP-TR-212GC 2016Google Scholar
  12. Di Sipio E, Bertermann D (2017b) Factors influencing the thermal efficiency of horizontal ground heat exchangers. Energies 10(11):1897.  https://doi.org/10.3390/en10111897 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Di Sipio E, Bertermann D (2018) Thermal properties variations in soil bodies for very shallow geothermal application: overview of ITER Project. International Agrophysics (Open Access), (submitted, accepted for publication)Google Scholar
  14. Di Sipio E, Bertermann D, Psyk M, Popp T (2016) Improving thermal efficiency of horizontal ground heat exchangers. In: EGC 2016-European Geothermal Congress Proceedings, Strasbourg (France), 19-23.09.2016, EGC2016-T-EP-72, 1-5. ISBN 978-2-9601946Google Scholar
  15. Diersch H-JG (2014) FEFLOW-finite element modeling of flow, mass and heat transport in porous and fractured media. Springer, Berlin, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  16. DIN 18121-1 (1998) Soil, investigation and testing: water content part 1. Determination by drying in oven, German standard DIN, Berlin (Deutsches Institut für Normung)Google Scholar
  17. DIN 18123 (2011) Soil, investigation and testing: determination of grain size distribution, German standard DIN, Berlin (Deutsches Institut für Normung)Google Scholar
  18. DIN 52102-02 (2006) Test methods for aggregates—determination of dry bulk density by the cylinder method and calculation of the ratio of density, German standard DIN, Berlin (Deutsches Institut für Normung)Google Scholar
  19. Farouki OT (1981) Thermal properties of soils (No.). NH: U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab. Hanover Nh. CRREL Monography 81–1:1–136Google Scholar
  20. Florides G, Kalogirou S (2007) Ground heat exchangers: a review of systems, models and applications. Renew Energy 32(15):2461–2478.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2006.12.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gonzalez RG, Verhoef A, Vidale PL, Main B, Gan G, Wu Y (2012) Interactions between the physical soil environment and a horizontal ground coupled heat pump, for a domestic site in the UK. Renew Energy 44:141–153.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2012.01.080 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Guan X, Huang J, Guo N, Bi J, Wang G (2009) Variability of soil moisture and its relationship with surface albedo and soil thermal parameters over the Loess Plateau. Adv Atmos Sci 26(4):692–700.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-009-8198-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hinkel KM, Outcalt SI (1994) Identification of heat transfer processes during soil cooling, freezing, and thaw in central Alaska. Permafrost Periglac 5(4):217–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hinkel KM, Paetzold RF, Nelson FE, Bockheim JG (2001) Patterns of soil temperature and moisture in the active layer and upper permafrost at Barrow, Alaska: 1993–1999. Glob Planet Change 29:293–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hinzman LD, Kane DL, Gieck RE, Everett KR (1991) Hydrologic and thermal properties of the active layer in the Alaskan Arctic. Cold Reg Sci Technol 19(2):95–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. ISO 5725–1 (1994) Accuracy (trueness and precision) of measurement methods and results—part 1: general principles and definitions. International Organization for Standardization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  27. JCM 200 (2008) International vocabulary of metrology — Basic and general concepts and associated terms (VIM). 3rd Ed, Joint Committee for Guides in Metrology (JCGM)Google Scholar
  28. Kane LD, Hinkel KM, Goering DJ, Hinzman LD, Outcalt SI (2001) Non-conductive heat transfer associated with frozen soils. Glob Planet Change 29:275–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Leong WH, Tarnawski VR, Aittomäki A (1998) Effect of soil type and moisture content on ground heat pump performance: Effet du type et de l’humidité du sol sur la performance des pompes à chaleur à capteurs enterrés. Int J Refrig 21(8):595–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Liu H, Wang B, Fu C (2008) Relationships between surface albedo, soil thermal parameters and soil moisture in the semi-arid area of Tongyu, northeastern China. Adv Atmos Sci 25(5):757–764.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-008-0757-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Neuberger P, Adamovsky R, Sed’ova M (2014) Temperatures and heat flows in a soil enclosing a slinky horizontal heat exchanger. Energies 7(2):972–987.  https://doi.org/10.3390/en7020972 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Nikolaev IV, Leong WH, Rosen MA (2013) Experimental investigation of soil thermal conductivity over a wide temperature range. Int J Thermophys 34(6):1110–1129.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10765-013-1456-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Omer AM (2008) Ground-source heat pumps systems and applications. Renew Sust Energ Rev 12:344–371.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2006.10.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. REHAU (2012) Raugeo System Technology: innovative heating, cooling and storage using ground-source energy technical information 827600/1en., 2012. Available online: https://www.rehau.com/download/790486/raugeo-technical-manual-september-2012.pdf. Accessed 15 Jan 2018Google Scholar
  35. Roxy MS, Sumithranand VB, Renuka G (2010) Variability of soil moisture and its relationship with surface albedo and thermal diffusivity at astronomical observatory, Thiruvananthapuram, South Kerala. J Earth Syst Sci 119(4):507–513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ryden BE (1986) Winter soil moisture regime monitored by the time-domain reflectrometry technique (TDR). Geogr Ann A 68(3):175–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Saxton KE, Rawls WJ (2006) Soil water characteristic estimates by texture and organic matter for hydrologic solutions. Soil Sci Soc Am J 70(5):1569–1578.  https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2005.0117 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Self SJ, Reddy BV, Rosen MA (2013) Geothermal heat pump systems: status review and comparison with other heating options. Appl Energy 101:341–348.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2012.01.048 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Smits KM, Sakaki T, Limsuwat A, Illangasekare TH (2010) Thermal conductivity of sands under varying moisture and porosity in drainage–wetting cycles. Vadose Zone J 9(1):172–180.  https://doi.org/10.2136/vzj2009.0095 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Song WK, Cui YJ, Tang AM, Ding WQ, Tran TD (2014) Experimental study on water evaporation from sand using environmental chamber. Can Geotech J 51(2):115–128.  https://doi.org/10.1139/cgj-2013-0155 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Syvitski JP (2007) Principles, methods and application of particle size analysis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  42. Tarnawski VR, Gori F (2002) Enhancement of the cubic cell soil thermal conductivity model. Int J Energ Res 26(2):143–157.  https://doi.org/10.1002/er.772 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. USDA United States Department of Agriculture (1987) Soil mechanics level 1–module 3, USDA textural soil classification, Study Guide, Soil Conservation Service USDAGoogle Scholar
  44. Wu Y, Gan G, Verhoef A, Vidale PL, Gonzalez RG (2010) Experimental measurement and numerical simulation of horizontal-coupled slinky ground source heat exchangers. Appl Therm Eng 30(16):2574–2583.  https://doi.org/10.1093/ijlct/ctr013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Wu R, Tinjum JM, Likos WJ (2015) Coupled thermal conductivity dryout curve and soil-water characteristic curve in modeling of shallow horizontal geothermal ground loops. Geotech Geol Eng 33(2):193–205.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10706-014-9811-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Xu H, Spitler JD (2011) Importance of moisture transport, snow cover and soil freezing to ground temperature predictions. In: Proceedings 9th Nordic Symposium on Building Physics. Vol.1, NSB:163–170Google Scholar
  47. Zarrella A, De Carli M (2013) Heat transfer analysis of short helical borehole heat exchangers. Appl Energy 102:1477–1491.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2012.09.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Friedrich-Alexander University (FAU) Erlangen-Nuremberg, GeoCentre of Northern BavariaErlangenGermany

Personalised recommendations