Integrated physicochemical and hydrogeochemical assessment to groundwater quality in Obosi and Onitsha provinces, South-eastern Nigeria

  • Ogbonnaya Igwe
  • Uche O. Chukwura
Original Article


An integrated physicochemical and hydrogeochemical assessment was carried out at an automobile junk market in Obosi and in residential areas in Anambra State, south-eastern Nigeria to examine the concentration of heavy metals in the groundwater and determine the quality of the water for drinking and other domestic purposes. Forty groundwater samples were collected from boreholes and hand-dug wells (three samples from Obosi and the rest from Onitsha). They were subjected to atomic absorption spectrometry using standard field and laboratory techniques and analysed for physicochemical and hydrogeochemical parameters. Results show that the groundwater in the study area is slightly acidic to neutral, soft to moderately hard when compared with the World Health Organization maximum allowable concentration values and the Nigerian Standards for Drinking Water Quality. The electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand ranged from 58 to 1796 μS/cm, 6.78 to 8.76 and 0.17 to 1.50 mg/L, respectively. Heavy metal concentrations measured (in ppm) in the water included nickel, manganese, copper and zinc and varied from 0 to 1.82, 0 to 0.195, 0 to 0.325 and 0 to 0.09, respectively, while heavy metal concentrations in the soil measured (in ppm) included iron, lead and cadmium and varied from 0 to 3.87, 0 to 1.80 and 0 to 7.38 mg/kg, respectively. Statistical results gave significant correlation (at 0.05) between electrical conductivity and total hardness, biochemical oxygen demand and dissolved oxygen, and several others elements. The study helps in the understanding of the chemistry of groundwater for long-term monitoring and management for the local community.


Pollution Heavy metals Chemistry Groundwater Anambra State Nigeria 



The field work of this study is self funded. The authors express their sincere gratitude to post-graduate students (Johnbosco Egbueri, Chidinma Chukwu, Ibhrahim Idris) and Dr. Uzoma Oyesanya, for assisting in the field, and the staff of the laboratories of the Projects Development Institute (PRODA) in Emene, Enugu State, Nigeria, for assisting in the laboratory. Appreciation also goes to Chukwuebuka Emeh for the support with the Statistical modelling tool. Proof-reader, Mr Okey Chukwura.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Geology, Faculty of Physical SciencesUniversity of NigeriaNsukkaNigeria

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