Indian Journal of Gastroenterology

, Volume 37, Issue 3, pp 261–265 | Cite as

Genotyping of hepatitis B virus isolates from Lahaul and Spiti district in Himachal Pradesh, India

  • Brij Sharma
  • Harshita Katiyar
  • Deepesh Barall
  • Neetu Sharma
  • Shikha Agnihotry
  • Amit Goel
  • Rakesh AggarwalEmail author
Short Report


Hepatitis B virus (HBV) has several genotypes. In the Indian population, genotypes A and D are the most frequent. HBV infection is hyper-endemic in the Lahaul and Spiti district in Himachal Pradesh; however, the virus genotype in this area is not known. We sequenced a 398-nucleotide segment of HBV genome that included parts of pre-S1/S2 and polymerase genes from 17 specimens from this district, and assigned a viral genotype to these. Of the 17 specimens studied, 13 (76% [95% confidence interval = 50–92%]) showed the presence of genotype C HBV; the remaining four were genotype D (n = 4; 24%) HBV. Prevalence of genotype C HBV was much higher in the district than in other parts of India. This may reflect the historical mixing of this population with that in China. Since genotype C has a higher risk of chronicity and mother-to-child transmission, prevention of HBV infection may need particular emphasis in this area.


Genetic epidemiology Genotype Hepatitis B virus India 


Funding information

The field work for this study was supported by National Health Mission, Himachal Pradesh.

The sequencing facility at the Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow was established using a grant from the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, under its FIST program. During this work, HK was supported by a grant from the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, and SA was supported by a grant from the Indian Council of Medical Research.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

BS, HK, DB, NS, SA, AG, and RA declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethics statement

The study was performed in a manner to conform with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000 and 2008 concerning human and animal rights, and the authors followed the policy concerning informed consent as shown on


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Copyright information

© Indian Society of Gastroenterology 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GastroenterologyIndira Gandhi Medical CollegeShimlaIndia
  2. 2.Department of GastroenterologySanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical SciencesLucknowIndia
  3. 3.National Health MissionShimlaIndia
  4. 4.Department of PhysiologyIndira Gandhi Medical CollegeShimlaIndia

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