Indian Journal of Gastroenterology

, Volume 37, Issue 3, pp 189–195 | Cite as

Risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease: A prospective multi-center study

  • Anjali D. AmarapurkarEmail author
  • Deepak N. Amarapurkar
  • Pravin Rathi
  • Prabha Sawant
  • Nikhil Patel
  • Praful Kamani
  • Krishnakant Rawal
  • Rajiv Baijal
  • Ameya Sonawane
  • Nitin Narawane
  • Samrat Kolekar
  • Naveen Totla
Original Article



Environmental risk factors have been associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). With rising incidence, it is important to know risk factors associated with IBD in our population. This study was aimed to evaluate risk factors for IBD from western India.


This was prospective, multi-center case-control study which included 1054 patients with IBD of which 765 (72.5%) were ulcerative colitis (UC) and 289 (27.4%) Crohn’s disease (CD). Asymptomatic individuals without a history of any major illness served as controls. The questionnaire containing risk factors for IBD was given to patients and control group. Odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were calculated for each variable.


Significant numbers of patients with CD were from rural area. Rural environment (OR 1.071, 0.82–1.38 and OR 1.441, 1.02–2.02), higher education (OR 1.830, 1.52–2.19 and OR 1.519, 1.16–1.97), professional by occupation (OR 1.754, 1.46–2.09 and OR 1.293, 0.99–1.67), annual family income >100,000 Indian national rupees (OR 2.185, 1.52–3.13 and OR 4.648, 3.10–6.95), history of appendectomy (OR 3.158, 1.71–5.80 and OR 3.158, 1.71–5.80), and family history of IBD (OR 4.510, 2.19–9.25 and OR 3.972, 1.58–9.96) were the risk factors for UC and CD, respectively. Vegetarian diet was protective factor for UC (OR 0.29, 0.27–0.39) and risk for CD (OR 1.179, 0.88–1.57). Smoking and chronic alcoholism were not found to be the risk factors.


This study highlights association between socioeconomic, dietary factors, appendectomy, and family history as risk factors for IBD.


Crohn’s disease Extraintestinal manifestations Ulcerative colitis 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

ADA, DNA, PR, PS, NP, PK, KR, RB, AS, NN, SK, and NT declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethics statement

The authors declare that the study was performed in a manner to conform with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000 and 2008 concerning human and animal rights, and the authors followed the policy concerning informed consent as shown on


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Copyright information

© Indian Society of Gastroenterology 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anjali D. Amarapurkar
    • 1
    Email author
  • Deepak N. Amarapurkar
    • 2
  • Pravin Rathi
    • 3
  • Prabha Sawant
    • 4
  • Nikhil Patel
    • 5
  • Praful Kamani
    • 6
  • Krishnakant Rawal
    • 7
  • Rajiv Baijal
    • 8
  • Ameya Sonawane
    • 2
  • Nitin Narawane
    • 9
  • Samrat Kolekar
    • 1
  • Naveen Totla
    • 8
  1. 1.Department of PathologyTopiwala National Medical College and B Y L Nair Charitable HospitalMumbaiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Gastroenterology and HepatologyBombay HospitalMumbaiIndia
  3. 3.Department of GastroenterologyTopiwala National Medical College and B Y L Nair Charitable HospitalMumbaiIndia
  4. 4.Department of GastroenterologyLokmanya Tilak Municipal Medical College and Sion HospitalMumbaiIndia
  5. 5.Department of GastroenterologyJeevandeep HospitalAnandIndia
  6. 6.Department of GastroenterologyWockhardt HospitalRajkotIndia
  7. 7.Department of Gastroenterology and Liver DiseaseMilestone HospitalRajkotIndia
  8. 8.Department of GastroenterologyJagjivan Ram Western Railway HospitalMumbaiIndia
  9. 9.Lake City Endoscopy CentreThaneIndia

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