Sedation practices in gastrointestinal endoscopy—A survey from southern India
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Gastrointestinal endoscopies can cause an unpleasant experience for the patient. In India, most endoscopists follow a common institutional policy for sedation. The aim of this study was to analyze the sedation practices in various endoscopy centers across southern India. Data were collected with the help of a structured questionnaire given to a senior endoscopist of the center. Data from the completed questionnaire were later analyzed. Data were obtained from 19 centers across southern India. All endoscopy suites had central oxygen supply and emergency cart. A defibrillator was available in 12 centers (63.2%). Common criteria followed for administering sedation included therapeutic procedures (84.2%), patients who requested sedation (63.2%), children (63.2%), high-risk procedures (57.9%), and uncooperative patients (57.9%). Monitoring methods included pulse oximetry alone in six centers (31.6%), pulse oximetry with blood pressure monitoring in five centers (26.3%), and pulse oximetry, blood pressure, and electrocardiography (ECG) monitoring in eight centers (42.1%). For advanced procedures like endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), sedation was universally used. An anesthesiologist was available in the endoscopy suite in eight centers (42.1%). Five endoscopists administered propofol sedation without anesthesiologist’s presence (26.3%). Thirteen centers had a written protocol for pre-procedure risk assessment (68.4%). A dedicated post-procedure observation area was available in seventeen centers (89.5%). Seven centers followed a written post-sedation discharge protocol (36.8%). Significant variations exist in the practice of sedation among endoscopists in southern India. There is an urgent need to formulate guidelines by endoscopy societies for ensuring better patient outcomes in endoscopy.
KeywordsEndoscopy Propofol Sedation Survey
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
PZ, SM, JM, AS, MP, MP, and MP declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The authors declare that the study was performed in a manner conforming to the Helsinki declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000 and 2008 concerning human and animal rights, and the authors followed the policy concerning informed consent as shown on Springer.com.
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