Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are deficit in communication, social skills, empathy, emotional responsiveness and have significant behavioral pattern. They have difficulty in understanding other feelings and their own emotions. This leads to the sudden emotional outburst and aggressive behavior in these children. Parents, caretakers and doctors find it very difficult to prevent such extreme behaviors. Learning the positive and negative valence leads in determining the early indications before the onset of emotional outbursts in children with ASD. The present study measures the psycho physiological electrocardiogram (ECG) signal from the typically developed (TD) children and children with ASD in the age group of 5–11 years. Personalized protocol was developed for every child with ASD to induce positive and negative valence and ECG data was collected using wearable Shimmer ECG device. The heart rate variability (HRV) and the QRS amplitude were derived from ECG signal using Pan–Tompkins algorithm and eleven features were extracted using DWT (db2, db4 and db8) mother wavelet. The significant features of ECG, HRV and QRS amplitude were classified using the K nearest neighbor (KNN), support vector machine (SVM) and ensemble classifier. Ensemble and KNN classifier achieved maximum accuracy of 81% and 76.2% for children with ASD and Ensemble and SVM classifiers obtained maximum accuracy of 87.4% and 83.8% for TD children using HRV data.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Ethical approval was obtained from the Ethics Committee of National Institute for Empowerment of Persons with Multiple Disabilities (NIEPMD), Chennai regarding the protocol and data acquisition procedure prior to performing the experiments. Ethical Approval ID: SE: -0101/2018.
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Bagirathan, A., Selvaraj, J., Gurusamy, A. et al. Recognition of positive and negative valence states in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using discrete wavelet transform (DWT) analysis of electrocardiogram signals (ECG). J Ambient Intell Human Comput 12, 405–416 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12652-020-01985-1
- Autism spectrum disorder (ASD)
- Heart rate variability (HRV)
- Pan–Tompkins algorithm
- K nearest neighbor (KNN)